Nikolay Novikov. Man, who taught Russian society to love books

Новиков Иван Николаевич

Nikolay Novikov – the first journalist of Russia, publisher. Born 8 may (by old. style 27 april) 1744 years in the village of Avdotino-Tikhvinskoe. Studied at the noble gymnasium at Moscow University in the French class. He stayed there for three years.

IN 16 years he moved to St. Petersburg and entered the Izmailovsky Life Guards regiment. This coincided in time with the accession of Peter III.. Participated in a coup d'état 28 June 1762 of the year, after which Catherine II took the throne. Participation in the coup propelled Novikov up the career ladder., he was granted a non-commissioned officer. He did not stay in this position for long, preferred to retire and start writing.

IN 1767 year was invited to the commission for drawing up “New Code”, as a man, educated.

FROM 1766 Nikolai Ivanovich begins to publish the first translation books. And with 1769 by 1774 gg. magazines “Drone”, “Babbler”. “Painter”. At different times, Radishchev A. Н., Fonvizin D. AND., Sumarokov, A. P. Note, that publishing in those days was considered a dubious occupation, and it took a sufficient degree of courage to do it.

журнал Новикова "Трутень"
"Drone". The epigraph of the magazine was the words of Sumarokov: “They work, and you eat their work”.
Журнал Новикова "Живописец"
Journal "Painter"

Magazine “Drone” was satirical. Satire was welcomed at the time. Catherine II herself published a satirical magazine. But the journal Novikov and the Empress fundamentally differed in their content.. Both made fun of the same thing: noble life, unnecessary luxury, bad influence of the West. But, for Catherine, these topics were comic in nature, by the type of ridicule of human weaknesses, attention to human morals, etc..

For Novikov, these topics were a serious conversation.. He publishes stinging things on the pages of his magazine., who reproach, denounce nobles in connection with, what they, taking advantage of my position, belittle everyone else. Novikov focuses in his magazine on the estate of the bourgeoisie, or in other words, city ​​dwellers. With this emphasis, the publisher takes a serious step forward.. Besides, Novikov touches upon the topic of the situation of the peasants. And he speaks rather sharply about this, what causes discontent “from above”.

Over time, they begin to demand from Novikov, to soften the tone of the articles, which are published in “Drone”, what he does. But later he just closes the magazine and starts publishing another magazine. “Painter”. The new magazine became the best in 18 in. It published serious theoretical articles, reviews of critical literature, culture, and again articles on social life in Russia. History “Painter” ends up closing again.

But Novikov does not stop there either.. He starts publishing “Saint Petersburg Vedomosti”. An impressive publication was “Ancient Russian Vivlifika”, which was a collection of pre-Petrine literary works.

 "Древняя Российская Вивлиофика"  Новиков И. Н.
“Ancient Russian Vivlifika”

IN 1779 Novikov suddenly ceases to operate. Such a drastic decision to terminate the publishing house was due to the fact, that Novikov himself could not understand, how to get out of that situation, in which the society is. In his reasoning, he understands, that only education can change the situation in the country, but he understands, that enlightenment is the path to the destruction of the same country. This contradictory state of affairs seriously puzzled the journalist. Stay in the old, stable world or the efforts of an enlightened monarch to break the old world and create a new.

Being in such a crisis mood, Novikov joins the Masonic lodge, very popular movement in 18 and 19 cc. Despite, that now Freemasonry is considered almost a dirty word, society dealt with serious issues. Members of the Masonic lodge tried to engage in self-knowledge, enlightenment, set goals for themselves developmental.

Curator of Moscow University, as well as a freemason, Kheraskov M. M. invites Novikov to Moscow. There the publisher begins to manage the printing house of Moscow University.. Modernizes it and creates in 1780 the first public library-reading room in Moscow. This period in the work of Novikov is considered the most fruitful. He published various magazines, newspaper “Moskovskie vedomosti”, calendars and textbooks. It came out about 100 various books, among which, eg, “Gulliver's Journey”, “Robinson Crusoe” and the first periodical for children “Children's reading for heart and mind”. Novikov is one of the first, who begins to publish the works of A. N. Radishcheva.

It was Novikov who created “tool” book subscriptions, he begins to give booksellers various benefits on books, lends publications to, to be sold not only in the city, but also in villages. All these innovations have led to an amazing result: in 20 turnover from book sales increases once. The number of shops in Moscow is growing tenfold, in which books were sold. In this way, it was Novikov who taught Russian people to love books, read them. It was Novikov, now practically not mentioned anywhere, thanks to the book distribution system he organized, he contributed to the development of social thought in Russia. Before that, nothing like this was observed.

IN 1781 year Novikov marries A. AND. Rimskoy-Korsakova, they had three children. IN 1791 year Alexandra Ivanovna died, and Novikov with his children moved to Avdotino. Here he built stone houses for his peasants -“connections” for four families. People still live in them. At his own expense, he kept the temple of the Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God, which was built and painted according to his sketches.

усадьба первого журналиста Новикова
Estate Novikov N. AND.

Novikov's activities do not suit Catherine II at all, she orders to watch him, then, what does he publish. Eventually, in 1792 Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov was arrested and thrown into solitary confinement at the Shlisselburg Fortress in St. Petersburg. And there, before the completion of the investigation, he receives a verdict – 15 years old.
He was accused of being, that during the famine he distributed bread to people, acquired it is not clear with whose money. In reality, the money was given to Novikov by the son of one industrialist, who thus wanted to help hungry people. Novikov was released only in November 1796 years the day after the death of Catherine II.

4 years he spent in solitary confinement, without even changing dresses. After his release, he was immediately sent to his estate Avdotino-Tikhvinskoe. Novikov's health has seriously deteriorated over the years. However, in 1805 year he tried to return to publishing, but unsuccessfully.

остатки усадьбы Новикова
Then, what is left of the Novikov estate. Commemorative plaque .

IN 1818 Nikolay Ivanovich Novikov died in July. There is a legend, that his body was carried from the house to the church along an underground passage, where the masonic printing presses were later hidden.

Новиков Николай Иванович. Человек, научивший русское общество любить книги