Курчатов Игорь Васильевич (1903-1960), Симский Завод – Moscow

Курчатов Игорь Васильевич

Кто такой Курчатов Игорь Васильевич

Курчатов Игорь Васильевичсоветский физик, доктор физико-математических наук, создатель атомной бомбы. Один из самых засекреченных ученых в СССР. Трижды Герой Социалистического Труда. Основатель, а в последствии директор, Института атомной энергии.

О Курчатове достаточно знать, что он:

родился в поселке Симский Завод Уфимской губернии (сейчас это город Сим Челябинской области) 12 January 1903 года в семье землемера-землеустроителя и учительницы. У Игоря Курчатова был брат Борис, также в последствии ставший ученым, и сестра Антонина, в юном возрасте скончавшаяся от туберкулеза.

в 6-летнем возрасте Курчатов вместе с семьей переезжает в г. Симбирск (ныне Ульяновск), а спустя три года в Симферополь.

впечатлившись книгойУспехи современной техникиКорбино, Курчатов серьезно задумался о том, чтобы стать в будущем инженером. От высоких помыслов отвлекали бытовые трудности в условиях начавшейся Первой мировой войны, когда ему пришлось учебу в гимназии совмещать с подработками, а также с занятиями в вечерней ремесленной школе. По первой профессией специальности Курчатовслесарь. Однако серьезные намерения не оставили молодого человека, and, блестяще окончив гимназию, in 1920 году он поступает на физико-математический факультет Симферопольского Таврического университета, ректором которого в то время был Вернадский В. AND.

университетскую программу, рассчитанную на четыре года обучения, Курчатов освоил за три. Тема его дипломной работы«Теория гравитационного элемента».
IN 1923 году Курчатов поступает в Петроградский Политехнический институт сразу на третий курс кораблестроительного факультета. Но проучившись год, он вынужден был оставить занятия по причине невозможности совмещать учебу с работой (финансовая необходимость) и вернуться в Крым. Nonetheless, год в Петрограде не прошел для Курчатова даром: здесь он провел первое собственное научное исследование по измерению радиоактивности снега. Работа эта в 1925 году была опубликована вЖурнале геофизики и метеорологии”.

талант Курчатова, как ученого, расцвел под руководством А. F. Иоффе в ЛФТИ, куда последнийпереманилего, 22-летнего молодого человека, in 1925 году из Азербайджанского политехнического института. В Баку Курчатов почти год проработал ассистентом при кафедре физики.

в ЛФТИ Курчатов сначала занимал должность старшего инженера-физика, затемвыросдо заведующего лабораторией и далее до заведующего отделом. Здесь он проработал с 1 October 1925 года по 14 august 1943 of the year.

в ЛФТИ Курчатов исследовал электрическую прочность твердых диэлектриков, механизм пробоя диэлектриков. МонографияСегнетоэлектрики” (1933) стала результатом опытов ученого над сегнетовой солью, веществом, имевшим высокую диэлектрическую проницаемость;

– in 1930 году Курчатов переходит в область ядерной физики. IN 1935 им открыто явление изомерии искусственных атомных ядер.
IN 1937 году под руководством Курчатова был запущен первый в Европе циклотрон (ускоритель заряженных частиц (протонов и ионов)).

начавшаяся война в 1941 году вынудила ученого переключиться из области ядерной физики на разработку систем размагничивания для боевых кораблей. Советский флот вскоре был защищен от фашистских магнитных мин.

– in 1942 году Курчатову поставлена задача преодолеть превосходство американцев в исследованиях атома. Для этого на базе лаборатории будущего Института атомной энергии (ЛИПАН) была развернута работа в режиме строжайшей секретности. Неподалеку от Арзамаса был построен научный центр КБ-11 (Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт экспериментальной физики). Вскоре к проекту подключились Ю.Б. Харитон, Л.Б. Зельдович, А.Д. Сахаров и другие выдающиеся советские ученые, для исследований в короткие сроки сооружались требуемые здания, поставлялись необходимые материалы, ie. колоссальные силы брошены были на этот проект. И всем этим руководил Игорь Васильевич Курчатов.

Курчатов, по воспоминаниям сотрудников, обладал великой работоспособностью, и удержать соответствующий темп работы не всем было под силу. Для ученого критично важно было иметь четкий план работы, не распыляться на второстепенноедержать цель во внимании, нести личную ответственность за сделанное при строгом контроле работы подчиненных и, the main thing, Курчатов был оптимистом, а в экспериментальных работах, где положительный результат не всегда скор, это качество крайне важно. Moreover, сложные, опасные, работы с графитом или ураном не проходили без его участия.
Первое в СССР испытание плутониевой бомбы состоялось 29 august 1949 года на Семипалатинском полигоне под руководством И.В. Курчатова.
12 августа 1953-го на полигоне был произведен взрыв первой в мире водородной бомбы.

скончался Игорь Васильевич Курчатов 7 February 1960 года во время встречи с академиком Харитоном. После прогулки ученые присели отдохнуть на скамейку, и вскоре Харитон обнаружил, что Курчатов не откликается на беседу. В это время Игоря Васильевича поразил третий удар.

Курчатов Игорь Васильевич (1903-1960), Симский Завод - Москва

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), Izhevskoe – Kaluga

Циолковский Константин Эдуардович

1. Who is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Russian scientist, and self-taught, founder of modern astronautics. At first, Tsiolkovsky's ideas about space exploration, inconspicuous in the scientific community, later served as an impetus for the active implementation of his theoretical developments in practice.. In film “Takeoff” (1979) you can visually familiarize yourself with the biography of Konstantin Eduardovich.

“There was only one outcome to my reformist aspirations: Technics, science, invention and natural philosophy. At first it was all in the realm of dreams, and then my innovation began to creep out and was the reason, pushing away from me the faithful undoubted scientists. I was an upstart, reformer and as such was not recognized. Who could agree with a man, who dared to shake the very foundations of the sciences. How can you deny Lobachevsky, Einstein and their followers in Germany and Russia!”
Циолковский К. E. “Traits from my life”

2. Year and place of birth. Origin

Циолковский К.Э.

Born Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky 5 september 1857 years in the village of Izhevskoye, Ryazan province. He has Polish roots on his father. The surname Tsiolkovsky comes from the town of Tsiolkovo, what was once in the Płock Voivodeship. The scientist's ancestors owned villages in these places. Tsiolkovsky's mother – from the small noblemen of the Tatar family of the Yumashevs.
Judging by the memoirs of Konstantin Eduardovich(“Traits from my life”) his parents had exactly the opposite character. If the mother was a cheerful active character, then father, opposite, gloomy and withdrawn.
The financial component of the Tsiolkovsky family was modest. Father changed jobs several times, moving with the family to a new destination each time, and in the end, Tsiolkovsky settled in Vyatka.

3. Deafness of Tsiolkovsky. Education.

Циолковский К.

Tsiolkovsky lost his hearing at the age 9 years old. The reason for this was the complication after the transferred scarlet fever.. In his memoirs, the scientist reflects on the impact of this physical disability on his entire future life.. Deafness tore him away from his comrades, from the usual way of life in society and plunged into myself, into your thoughts, fantasy. The result of this alienation – valuable ideas for all mankind.

IN 1892 year, already being a physics teacher at the diocesan women's school, Tsiolkovsky, to better hear the students' answers, made a special pipe, which I put to my ear.

4. Education

Initially, the mother was engaged in the education of children in the Tsiolkovsky family., Maria Ivanovna. Konstantin Eduardovich recognized her talent and liveliness of mind. Maria Ivanovna died in 38 years old, at that time Konstantin was 13 years old. According to him, for three years he dropped out of any educational process, calling this state “dullness”, although he attended the Vyatka classical gymnasium. IN 14 years old Tsiolkovsky suddenly became interested in geometry, arithmetic, physics and began to haphazardly study these subjects independently. At the same time, I became interested in working on a lathe, there were thoughts about creating a balloon. The father could not fail to note his son's ability to technology and sent him to study at the Moscow Technical School.

Tsiolkovsky studied in Moscow for three years (1873-1876), after which, for various reasons, he was forced to return to his father in Vyatka. On the spot, he began to earn money by tutoring in algebra and geometry.. The young man had the ability to explain complex subjects in an accessible manner., which had the most positive effect on his reputation as a teacher. He never bargained for his wages., so that people of different incomes could always turn to him for help. Its other feature, as a knowledgeable teacher, was the inclusion of visual material in the educational process (figures), which he made with his own hands and brought to lessons.

IN 1878 year Tsiolkovsky, Constantine and father, returned to Ryazan. Here, Konstantin did not work out with tutoring, and he decides to take an external exam for the title of teacher of public schools, which is successful and performs in September 1879 of the year. Four months later, he receives an appointment to the town of Borovsk near Kaluga.. IN 1892 year of Tsiolkovsky, as one of the best teachers, transferred to Kaluga (Kaluga district school), town, where the scientist will live until the end of his life.

5. Tsiolkovsky's contribution to science

“Inevitably come first: think, fantasy, story. They are followed by scientific calculation, and in the end, execution crowns thought”.
Циолковский К. E.

Циолковский с зеркалом

The people around him considered Tsiolkovsky an eccentric and a dreamer. This opinion changed as the scientific works of the Kaluga teacher were accepted in the scientific light.. The first published works of Tsiolkovsky such as: “Gas theory”, "Mechanics of the Animal Organism" and "Duration of the Sun's Radiation" found positive reviews from prominent metropolitan scientists. What can not be said about his innovative idea of ​​creating an airship.

Tsiolkovsky first thought about improving the balloon in 1885 year, and the result of these reflections was the invention of an aircraft with a thin metal shell with corrugated sidewalls, and instead of hydrogen, the scientist suggested using heated air. However, the scientific community did not find it necessary to devote time and allocate funds to create a model of the Tsiolkovsky airship.

IN 1887 year Tsiolkovsky wrote a science fiction story "On the Moon". The power of the scientist's imagination was so great, that his description of the surface of the moon from the person of the hero of the story, finding himself on a satellite of the earth, as we understand now, were surprisingly accurate: “Gloomy picture! Even the mountains are bare, shamelessly undressed, since we do not see a light veil on them - a transparent bluish haze, which the air throws over earthly mountains and distant objects ..., strikingly distinct landscapes! And the shadows! ABOUT, what dark! And what abrupt transitions from darkness to light! There are no those soft overflows, to which we are so accustomed and which can only give the atmosphere. Even the Sahara - and that would seem like paradise in comparison with that, what did we see here”. Tsiolkovsky's assumptions about the view of the Earth and the Sun from the Moon also turned out to be accurate., and regarding the occurrence of various physical processes there.

IN 1894 year Tsiolkovsky wrote an article "Aerostat or bird-like (aviation) flying machine ". And again, the scientific community of Russia turned out to be deaf to the ideas of a self-taught teacher. Later 20 years in Europe launched the first monoplane, which corresponded to the previously described by Tsiolkovsky “birdlike car”.

IN 1903 year Tsiolkovsky wrote an article “Exploration of world spaces with jet devices”, in which he proposed to use a rocket with an engine on a special fuel made of liquefied hydrogen and oxygen for space exploration, and also calculated the speed (“second space velocity”), at which the ship can enter the solar system. This and many other practical aspects served as the basis for, on which the Soviet rocketry was built.

Among other interesting ideas of Tsiolkovsky, the invention of the elevator is distinguished, with which people could get into space, as well as hover trains (“Air resistance and fast train”, 1929). Moreover, Tsiolkovsky described his idea of, where should humanity move in its development, pushing the boundaries of the usual earthly understanding.

6. Personal life. last years of life

Tsiolkovsky devoted his whole life to science, deliberately giving up the temptation of deep personal relationships. With pragmatism, he approached the choice of a wife. Tsiolkovsky married at the age of 23 to the daughter of a priest of the same faith church in Borovsk, from whom he rented a dwelling. The girl's name was Barbara. According to, Tsiolkovsky, there was no love between them, but there was respect. Seven children were born in marriage, two of them committed suicide (Ignatius and Alexander), one died in infancy.
His daughter Maria writes about the complex character of Tsiolkovsky in her memoirs. The whole life and life of household members, according to her, were subordinate to the father. Talented teacher within educational institutions, where did he have to teach, Tsiolkovsky was strict and intolerant with his children.
Konstantin Eduardovich considered himself amorous, addicted, at the same time deliberately did not allow himself to surrender to sensual impulses, explaining his male asceticism by his responsibility to his wife and children. The scientist himself summed up his thoughts about his family in his memoirs.: “children are not healthy from such marriages, happy and happy”.

With the establishment of Soviet power, the figure of Tsiolkovsky became noticeable. He was elected a member of the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences (1918). In November 1921 year, the scientist was awarded a life pension for services to domestic and world science.

Tsiolkovsky died 19 september 1935 years of age 78 years from stomach cancer. They came to see the last journey of the strange self-taught scientist about 50 thousand. person.

Константин Циолковский (1857-1935), Ижевское - Калуга

Nikolay Kostomarov (1817-1885), Yurasovka – St. Petersburg

Костомаров Николай Иванович

1. Who is Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov

Nikolay Kostomarov – this is a Russian historian, who was one of the first to become interested in history “little Russian” nationalities, after which he began to study and describe it in detail. As an explorer of the past, Kostomarov turned his attention to the history of the common people (Great Russians and Little Russians), his life, traditions, songwriting. Being confident in, what little Russians – it is an integral part of the great Russian people, Kostomarov advocated for the idea of ​​Pan-Slavism and a federal structure of a general Slavic state unification similar to the United States. Thanks to Nikolai Ivanovich, in historical science, the creation and development of local history has been outlined.

“…why is it that in all stories they talk about outstanding statesmen, sometimes about laws and institutions, but as if they neglect the life of the masses? Poor peasant farmer-toiler as if history does not exist; why history does not tell us anything about his life, about his spiritual life, about his feelings, the way of his joys and sorrows?”
Kostomarov N.. AND. “Autobiography”

Further, Kostomarov – publicist, a number of published historical works belong to him. Nikolai Ivanovich is also known as a teacher. In his teaching career, he became famous as an excellent lecturer. His history lectures were always popular with students.. Kostomarov was also noted in ethnography and literature.

2. Origin

Николай Костомаров
Nikolay Kostomarov

Ivan Nikolaevich Kostomarov was born 4 may 1817 year in the Yurasovka settlement of the Ostrogozhsky district of the Voronezh province.

The origin of Kostomarov is interesting to those, that he was born a peasant serf (Melnikova Tatiana Petrovna), while his father was the landowner Ivan Petrovich Kostomarov. For its time, the latter was distinguished by its peculiar, advanced views on the prevailing social foundations. Therefore, he chose to marry someone who was not equal to himself., and a girl from the common people. At that time, Tatyana Petrovna was approximately 10-11 years old.
The owner sent the girl to a Moscow private boarding house, so that she can learn manners and gain some knowledge, given to the young ladies of that time. However, in 1812 year education had to be interrupted due to the onset of Napoleon.

When Tatiana turned 17 years old, Kostomarov's parents got married, however, Ivan Petrovich did not have time to adopt his son. He died at the hands of his own serfs, when the boy was 11 years old. So, Николай, remaining serf of his late father, inherited by his immediate family. When were all legal issues resolved?, Nikolay and his mother settled in a house allocated to them on the edge of the village.

3. Education

Костомаров Николай
N. Kostomarov, artist N. Ge.

Kostomarov received his first experience outside of home education in a Moscow boarding house, brilliantly showing itself there in all disciplines with the exception of dancing. This was followed by training in Voronezh: boarding house first, then gymnasium. However, the level of education here was incomparably lower., than in a Moscow guesthouse. Nonetheless, Kostomarov completed the course, then, pretty well prepared somewhere on your own, somewhere with the help of a tutor, he entered Kharkov University at the Faculty of History and Philology.

At the very beginning of his studies at the university, Nikolai Ivanovich, as an inquisitive and addicted person, could not decide for myself, what is he really interested in. His area of ​​interest was wide: So, eg, the study of French soon gave way to the study of ancient languages, further Italian attracted attention, and then he began to try to write poetry, etc.. Gradually, a certain orderliness appeared in the acquisition of knowledge., and Kostomarov concentrated on in-depth study of history.

IN 1837 year Kostomarov received the degree of candidate, after which he decided to test himself in military affairs. He enlisted in the Kinburn Dragoon Regiment, who at that time was in Ostrogozhsk. However, military exercises and the general lifestyle of the military soon bored the young scientist, and then he found interest in the study of archival documents of the county court, which preserved the old files of the Cossack regiment, located here since the founding of the city. Soon leaving the service, Nikolai Ivanovich plunged into the study of the archive, and the result was a research work on the description of the Ostrogozhsky suburb regiment.

IN 1837 year Kostomarov received the degree of candidate, and in 1840 passed the master's degree exam.
IN 1842 year Kostomarov prepared a thesis "On the meaning of the union in Western Russia". However, this work did not like the Archbishop of Kharkov Innokenty., and at his filing was banned and sentenced to seizure and further burning.
A year later, Kostomarov submitted a new dissertation "On the Historical Significance of Russian Folk Poetry".

4. Pan-Slavism, punishment for an idea

While studying at the university, Kostomarov drew attention to the fact, that there is absolutely no documented information about the life of the common people: “Can not be, so that centuries of the past life are not imprinted in the life and memories of descendants: you just need to start looking - and, right, there is a lot, what is still missed by science. But where to start? Of course, from the study of his Russian people; and since I lived then in Little Russia, then start with its Little Russian branch”. So, soon Nikolai Ivanovich learned the Little Russian language and even began to write poetry in it. In parallel with this, he planned to write a book, dedicated to the personality of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, state your view on that legendary era.

In Kiev, where Kostomarov moved after Rivne to study the area, where the events of the time of Khmelnytsky that interest him once took place, he was admitted to Kiev University as a teacher of Russian history. Here the young scientist met with like-minded people. In particular, with Ukrainian poets Kulish P. AND. and Shevchenko T. G., Gulakom N. AND., Belozersky V. M., and also Navrotsky A. AND. and Markevich A. IN. They all shared Kostomarov's idea of ​​uniting the Slavic peoples.:

“We began to imagine all the Slavic peoples united among themselves in a federation like the ancient Greek republics or the United States of America., so that everyone is in a strong connection with each other, but each retained its sacred separate autonomy. The federation of only one nationality did not turn out to be quite convenient for us for many reasons., and especially in terms of the quantitative inequality of masses, belonging to nationalities. What kind of an alliance on the basis of mutual equality could exist between the insignificant number of Lugans and the huge mass of the Russian people with the immeasurable spaces of their fatherland??”
Kostomarov N.. AND. “Autobiography”.

So, friendly discussions of young people on ways to implement the ideas of Pan-Slavism smoothly moved to their decision to create a society sometime in the near future, which would become a unifying center for the followers of this great thought. This society even got a name: Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood. Despite, that it never went beyond talk, Kostomarov and his friends got into an unpleasant story because of these discussions.. A certain student Petrov, eavesdropped, reported on them.
Kostomarov was arrested and taken to St. Petersburg, where, after the investigation, he was charged with the illegal creation of a Ukrainian-Slavic society with the aim of uniting the Slavs into one state (in other words, for separatism), what followed the next punishment: “to deprive him of his chair, keep in a fortress for one year, and after this time, send to serve in one of the distant provinces, but not in the scientific part, with the establishment of special strict supervision over it”

After a year of imprisonment in the Peter and Paul Fortress, Kostomarov was sent to Saratov, where was under police surveillance. Here he continued to work on “Bogdan Khmelnytsky”, collected local songs and legends, he was also interested in the topic of schismaticism, the good of the Old Believers in this region there were enough, and Nikolai Ivanovich had the opportunity to communicate with them personally.
IN “Saratov” period Kostomarov met D. L. Mordovtsev, who followed him into the idea of ​​developing public interest in the regional life of the people, its traditions and characteristics.

5. Kostomarov-lecturer
Костомаров Н. И.

IN 1856 year supervision over Kostomarov was canceled, allowed also to print his works. IN 1859 year Nikolai Ivanovich was invited to St. Petersburg University to teach Russian history. Quite quickly, his lectures gained popularity among the students.. Probably, the reason for this was his independent approach to the study of historical science, what was perceived by young people of the 1860s, inclined to change, as a sign of a new life to come: some of Kostomarov's conclusions were contrary to the positions established at that time, what he was, by the way, repeatedly criticized by masters.

“IN 1860 my article, The Beginning of Rus, published in the first issue of Sovremennik, armed Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin against me. The old veteran of history couldn't stomach the courage, with which I dared to break the system of the origin of Russia from the Norman world. He arrived in Petersburg and, meeting me at the public library, invited me to enter into a public dispute with him on this issue. I AM, getting excited, agreed immediately… Our dispute took place 19 Martha. As expected, it ended in nothing: each of us remained unconvinced; however, how I had a chance to hear the opinion of the public, most of her leaned on my side”.
Kostomarov N.. AND. “Autobiography”

However, audience adoration turned out to be fickle. Not finding in your favorite teacher “signs of liberalism” during the student unrest in 1861 year, the youth, the most radical, concealed Kostomarov's malice. It manifested itself in the disruption of one of his public lectures in the city council., which were volunteered by some teachers, including Kostomarov, after the closure of St. Petersburg University as a result of student riots. The reason for the aggression was the refusal to stop reading the lecture in protest against the arrest and expulsion from the capital of Professor Pavlov.. IN. (for publicly reading your article “Millennium of Russia”, namely: at the end of his speech, he uttered the gospel phrase “having ears to hear, yes they hear”, incredibly loved by the audience).

“I was going to continue my public lectures and was only looking for places to read, since the Duma, after the scandal that happened, did not agree to give up its hall. Then he came to me Chernyshevsky and began to ask me not to lecture and not annoy the youth, because, as he knows, the youth, very indignant against me, going to give me a worse scandal in my audience. I answered, what if he knows it, then it would be much fairer to turn not to me, but to those, who think to make a scandal, and persuade them not to do it. Chernyshevsky left me angry and said, that he would try to suspend my lectures by requesting the Minister and the Governor-General. I told him, what if government officials, vested with the right, pause lectures to avoid disorder, then i submit to it; pretend to be sick, when i'm not sick, do not stop, because it would mean, telling the public about my future reading, suddenly get scared of young people and, willy-nilly, join their party and participate in their program of action. A day after that, I received a notice from the Minister that, that the reading of public lectures is suspended”.
Kostomarov N.. AND. Autobiography

IN 1862 year Kostomarov left the post of professor at St. Petersburg University. Later he was twice offered a place at Kiev University, as well as in Kharkov. Kostomarov, on the other hand, preferred to immerse himself in research activities..

6. Kostomarov about the Little Russians

In Ukraine, Kostomarov is highly revered. Streets in a number of cities are named in his honor, and this is not surprising: Nikolay Ivanovich, really, did a lot for the Ukrainian people and the preservation of its culture. In addition to collecting historical information on the history of the Little Russian Territory, followed by writing works, Kostomarov advocated for the publication of books in the Little Russian language, to make it easier for speakers of this dialect to engage in education.

“It turns out, that the Russian people are not united; there are two of them, who knows, maybe more will open, and nevertheless one is Russian ... It may very well be, that I was wrong in many ways, introducing such a concept of the difference between two Russian nationalities, compiled from observations of history and their real life. The cause of others will expose me and fix me. But understanding this distinction in this way, I think, that the task of your Foundation will be: express in literature that influence, what kind of signs of the South Russian nationality should have on our general education. This influence must not destroy, and to supplement and moderate that root principle of the Great Russian, which leads to cohesion, to merge, to a strict state and community form, absorbing personality, and commitment to practical activities, falling into materiality, devoid of poetry. The South Russian element should give our common life a dissolving, revitalizing, inspiring beginning. South Russian tribe, in past history, proved his incapacity for public life. It should have justly yielded to the Great Russian, join him, when the task of common Russian history was to form a state. But state life took shape, developed and strengthened. Now naturally, if a nationality with a different opposite basis and character enters the sphere of distinctive development and exerts an impact on the Great Russian one.”

Despite accusations of contemporaries of Ukrainophilism and separatism, Kostomarov never wanted a split of the Russian people, opposite, according to his logic, close peoples should stick together, covering each other's weaknesses. Also, according to the scientist, applies to Poles too, whose claim to belonging to the true “Slavs” (Russians, by their understanding, are not Slavs) not at all justified.
maybe, Kostomarov's ideas about Slavic unity are somewhat idealistic, but still have a right to exist. Nonetheless, today we, people 21 in., we can state: Slavic peoples, as in the distant past to their ancestors, it's still easier to split, how to find common ground and join forces. The peculiarity of the general mentality, apparently.

7. Kostomarov's notes on liberals. Actual
Костомаров Н. история России

“All this was done in the era of the most extreme development of the liberal mind movement in Russia.. In educated youth, the direction began, so characteristically nicknamed nihilism. It was dissatisfaction with all existing social, family and political system, some have already turned into dreams of rebuilding a public building, - others limited themselves to liberal condemnations of all that, what did the government and the elderly like.

каждый из нас

… A new reign has come, and with him - other times. The government itself has shown a number of planned reforms, that we have accumulated a lot that needs to be changed. Russian minds began to be imbued with thought, that there is too much bad in Russia and our society requires a radical revival. As always and everywhere, thinking youth rushes forward without restraint; all, what is being done around it, at least with explicit goals of improvement, she seems small, insufficient; she would like to see accomplished in a few months, which, according to the unchanging laws of history, takes years, tens of years and even centuries! “Everything is bad with us!"- such a phrase became fashionable and was stereotypically pronounced by everyone, who didn't want to be or seem retarded. What's in our social order, as in general in all human societies, there are dark sides - this is not news to anyone, and it could never be otherwise, while humanity goes through its earthly career; but passionate youth rarely know how to distinguish abuse from the essence of, what is abusing, tends to mix both, and instead of pruning the branches of the tree, hindering its growth, infringes on the very root.

In that era, in question, the youth began to trample on everything, what the old generation was in awe of: religion, statehood, moral, law, family, own, even art, poetry and talents. Science was important to her only in a utilitarian sense., how much she could contribute to the improvement of the material life of a person. All, what was previously considered the property of the spiritual world, dismissed as an idle pursuit, and the most spiritual world was called a dream. No doubt, that in all the enumerated areas there were always and everywhere dark sides, stirring up the mind to criticism.

Religion, in a vulgar sense, descended to hypocrisy or senseless adherence to the symbolic letter; statehood, as history has shown, often appeared in the form of senseless violence against the masses of the people, state people gave an aura of holiness to that, what was the deception, created rights, based in the beginning on wild power, the law was often shown to be powerless against human vices or served as a plausible cover for them; property rights, stubbornly defended by owners, denounced their failure, as soon as the means for the emergence and consolidation of property were criticized; the family represented too frequent occurrences, showing, what actually happened is not at all the same, what is recognized as the prejudice of society; morality in general had a very shaky and imprecise application: what was considered moral at one time or place, then in other times and places it was recognized as contrary; finally, art, poetry and free science turned out to be for the most part the privileges of the lucky ones of this world, exploited the poor, ignorant mass of people.

Such a dark look on human relations was not new.: Christ the Savior himself laid the foundation for his followers. His fiery sermon against the Pharisees was a condemnation and a sentence for hypocrisy of all ages.. In contrast to the earthly greatness of lords and kings, demanded their worship, The Savior indicated the rules for recognizing the elder over all that, who will be the servant of all”.
Autobiography. Kostomarov N.. AND.

8. Famous works. Memoirs

The first major works of Kostomarov are dedicated to such personalities as Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Stepan Razin (“Riot of Stenka Razin”).
IN 1860 g. in the journal “Contemporary” an article by Kostomarov was published “Home Russia”. In the same year he was elected a member of the archaeographic commission, and in this status, he began to write a number of monographs based on acts on the history of Little Russia in the 17th century in order to get an integral history of Little Russia 17 in. time of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

Besides the magazine “Contemporary” Kostomarov also collaborated with the magazine “Russian word” and “Basis”. The latter was the closest to him in spirit. Ukrainian magazine published in St. Petersburg “Basis” was created on the initiative, in particular, some old friends of Kostomarov, familiar to him since the discussion of the creation of the Cyril and Methodius Society. He published many articles on the pages of this magazine., dedicated to the argumentation of the existence of two Russian nationalities.

List of works:
Kostomarov N.. AND. Russian history in the biographies of its main figures;
Essay on the domestic life and customs of the great Russian people in the 16th and 17th centuries. Kostomarov N.. AND.;
Thoughts about the federal principle in ancient Russia.. Kostomarov;
Who was the first False Dmitry?: historical research H. Kostomarov;
Hetmanate of Yuri Khmelnitsky. Kostomarov N.. AND.;
The story of the liberation of Moscow from the Poles in 1612 year and the election of Tsar Michael. N. Kostomarov;
Ukrainian separatism: (unknown forbidden pages). N. AND. Kostomarov.

It is worth mentioning separately “Autobiography” Kostomarov. Here, a laconic and vivid description of his life path is complemented by mentions of people., who in one way or another were present in the life of Kostomarov, stories about significant events of his contemporary era.
This book will also be useful to those, who is interested in the relationship between Poles and Russians: Kostomarov managed to vividly capture the mood and aspirations of the Poles during their stay in the Russian Empire. He also mentioned the student unrest of the 1860s and the then fashionable nihilism among young people.. Also interesting are the historian's impressions of his trips around Russia. 19 in., still in Europe.

9. Personal life. Sunset
Крагельская (Кисель) Алина Леонтьенва, супруга Костомарова н.
Kragelskaya (Kissel) Alina Leontienva, wife of Kostomarov N..

IN 1847 year, living at that time in Kiev, Kostomarov met a girl, Alina Leontievna Kragelskaya. Young people have planned a wedding, but literally on the appointed day of the wedding, Kostomarov was arrested on charges of illegally organizing the community. After that, he served a year in prison., after which he went to Saratov in exile. The future of the young man was very vague.. The bride had no choice, how to succumb to the persuasion of parents and part with Kostomarov, to soon marry another.

Many years later (1873 g.), while passing through Kiev, Kostomarov met his bride again. She was widowed by this time and alone raised three children. IN 1875 year, the wedding of Kostomarov and Kragelskaya still took place. Together they lived 10 years old.

Judging by the memories, Kostomarov was very suspicious of his health. maybe, we are talking about hypochondria. Often his trips to Europe and Russia were accompanied by swimming in the sea., on the advice of doctors, to which he listened sensitively.
After suffering from typhus in 1875 year Kostomarov was never able to fully restore his health. it, in its turn, seriously affected his performance. With that energy and selflessness, the historian could no longer work.
Through 10 years old, 7 april 1885 years of age 67 years old Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov died. He was buried in St. Petersburg at Literatorskie mostki Volkovsky cemetery.

Bolotov, Andrey Timofeevich (1738-1833), Dvoryaninovo

Болотов Андрей Тимофеевич

1. Who is Andrei Bolotov?

Bolotov, Andrey Timofeevich – universal man, because it has proven itself in many fields of activity. These include agronomy and pomology., landscape design and even literature. At the same time, Bolotov and his achievements are very few people know., which is a significant injustice, because. his services to compatriots are significant, and he brought considerable benefit to Russian society. In particular, the consumption of potatoes and tomatoes in Russia went exactly with the light hand of Andrei Timofeevich, the principles of arranging the Russian park zone also developed thanks to him, and extensive records, which Bolotov left behind, are still a source of information about life, life and customs of Russia 17-18 cc.

2. Year and place of birth, origin

Andrey Timofeevich was born 7 October 1738 years in the Tula estate Dvoryaninovo, belonging to the Bolotov family. The third (And last) child in the family, with his older sisters, the age difference was significant.

His father Timofey Petrovich, middle-class landowner, served in the Arkhangelsk regiment and had the rank of colonel. Because of the service, he often and for a long time was absent from home., however, whenever possible, he always found the opportunity to transport and equip his wife, Mavra Stepanovna (in Bakeev's virginity), daughters and little son Andrey near him. Accompanying the father of the family during the movement of his regiment to a new location, Andrew thus spent his childhood in the lands of Courland and St. Petersburg, occasionally returning to home.

Aged 14 years Bolotov lost his father, and two years later he lost his mother.

3. Education

Father helped Bolotov to take his first steps in education. Then the parent entrusted it to a foreigner (to the German), considering, that only one of its origins will be the key to the successful mastery of the son of the German language in addition to teaching mathematics. However, the human qualities of the German were as follows, that their study time was mostly wasted: unable to systematically feed material, the foreigner only tortured the child with demands in the classroom. Fear and horror in front of a quick-tempered and unrestrained teacher only exacerbated the situation..

Nevertheless, Andrei Timofeevich was a capable child, and knowledge came easily to him with the right approach. 9-At that time, his father gave him to the family of a Courland nobleman by the name of Netelgorst, who had two sons and who were trained in all the necessary disciplines by a certain Frenchman. And here is already a young Bolotov, what is called, felt the difference, when I got to lessons with a new teacher. In a short time, he caught up in the knowledge of the sons of Netelgorst. No matter how good it was to study in this family, but due to his father's duty, Andrei had to move. Later Bolotov studied for some time at the St. Petersburg boarding school..

4. Service

According to custom 18 centuries noble children began their military careers early. So, Bolotov is already in 10 years he was in the rank of captenarmus. TO 19 over the years he rose to the rank of second lieutenant, and in this rank in 1757 year during the Seven Years' War took part in the battle of Gross-Jägersdorf.

In the same 1756 year Bolotov was sent to serve in Konigsberg, and here knowledge of the German language came in handy (foreign Andrei Timofeevich learned in the future, communicating with the Germans). Noting this skill for the second lieutenant, the command appointed him as the clerk of the Konigsberg chamber, and later a translator of official papers in German. During his stay in Prussia, Bolotov received the rank of lieutenant.

Bolotov retired with the rank of captain, after which he settled in his family estate.

4. Agricultural activities

Leaving the service and settling in the estate, Bolotov plunged into the study of effective farming. He showed great interest in gardening., and soon his family estate was qualitatively transformed.

In parallel with these works, Bolotov actively collaborated with the Free Economic Society, covering, at the request of the latter, all questions on agriculture in popular language. Andrey Timofeevich's professionalism inspired confidence, and soon Bolotov was recommended to Empress Catherine II. She was just looking for a man, able to competently improve the economy in his three estates, located in Kiyasovskaya, in Bobrikovskaya and Bogoroditskaya volosts, and also take on the function of a manager. Bolotov willingly agreed to the proposal from the Empress, and was engaged in the task set by her for 23 years, for which he was awarded the rank of collegiate assessor.

5. Bolotov – promoter of potatoes and tomatoes

Yes, thanks to Andrei Timofeevich, potatoes and tomatoes have become, finally, popular in Russia. Potatoes appeared with us in the times of Peter the Great. Only Russian people did not trust this overseas product, I softened, once “it grows in the ground, where all odds are found ", then use it for your own evil. Especially, thought others, there is such a fruit, which looks like a head with eyes, does not matter, what to eat human souls.

Andrei Timofeevich, on the other hand, had a scientific mindset., and such speculations were alien to him. Little of, that he himself ate potatoes, Bolotov began to study the tubers for their effective planting and further storage.. In particular, his guess, that it is always desirable to plant the best samples, empirically confirmed. Bolotov also found out the reason “landscaping” potatoes – its tubers do not tolerate sunlight, and it is better to store them in a dark room.

Being on top of everything else and a subtle psychologist, Bolotov once decided to take the following: he put a guard on his potato plantation and from time to time withdrew it. See, that the owner is so concerned about the harvest, people came to the conclusion, that for an unusable vegetable such supervision would hardly have been. And then people decided, taking advantage of the absence of the guards, take potatoes for a sample. This is what Bolotov sought. Peasants “tried” her, and later they even put potatoes after bread in second place in importance .

Amazing, but Bolotov also came up with the idea of ​​making from potatoes “shavings”, today we know them as chips. Andrey Timofeevich also experimented with dry soups, which could be diluted with boiled water.

It was the same with tomatoes.. People were afraid to eat them, considering poisonous, and was grown more like an ornamental plant. Bolotov showed by his example, whatever he, neither his family was poisoned, using them. Moreover, he began experimenting with preserving tomatoes for the winter.

5. Bolotov – writer. Memoirs

Андрей Болотов за работой
Engraving by L.A. Seryakov from illustration from A.T. Bolotov's book. Signature under the painting: “Accurate image, that room and place, where was this book written in 1789 and 1790 year. "

Since 1776 by 1779 g. Bolotov publishes the agricultural weekly magazine Rural Resident. An economic for the benefit of rural residents an employee publication ".

IN 1780 year publisher Nikolay Novikov suggested to Andrey Timofeevich in the newspaper “Moskovskie vedomosti” be published on a specially designated sheet called “Economic store”. So, fruitful cooperation with Novikov lasted 10 years old. As a result, Bolotov wrote for the newspaper of order 4000 articles, or 40 volumes of the encyclopedia, drawn up upon completion of cooperation.

At the same time, Bolotov also wrote philosophical works: "Children's philosophy, or moralizing conversations between a lady and her children, composed for the advancement of the true benefit of young people ", "A Guide to True Human Happiness", “A Christian's Feelings at the Beginning and End of Every Day, relating to oneself and to God ".

Another area of ​​Bolotov's writing activity was his memoirs. His Life and Adventures of Andrei Bolotov, described by him for his descendants ", "Notes of Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov" are, first of all, practical. The author assumed, that the autobiography will be useful to his descendants, because. I sincerely regretted it myself, that he had practically no information left from previous generations of relatives.

Historical works: "Monument of the past times, or Brief historical notes about past incidents and rumors circulating among the people ", "Modern news of the first French war", "Descriptions of the last French war", "Collection of anecdotes about Prince Potemkin", "A Brief History of Poland".
Encyclopedia for children called "Soul Kunstkamera".
"Rustic mirror, or the People's Book, composed not only, to read it, but in order to comply with it "- in fact, a practical guide to the effective organization of labor in agriculture.

6. Bolotov – scientist

Andrey Timofeevich Bolotov was the first in Russia to lay the foundation for the classification of plants. The article is devoted to this work. 1771 of the Year "Botanical Notes on Grass Classes".

In the work "On the separation of fields" (1771) Bolotov scientifically substantiated the benefits of crop rotation. He also urged to pay attention to the peculiarities of the location when cultivating the land., on the appropriateness of timely fertilization.

Bolotov – the first scientist-pomologist in Russia. He described about 600 varieties of apple and pear, plus he bred several varieties of fruit crops himself.

Andrey Timofeevich was noted in medicine, writing notes "Brief and experience based remarks about electricity and the ability of electric machines to help from various diseases". In other words, Bolotov was one of the first to apply the experience of electrophoresis treatment (he built the electrostatic machine with his own hand). Besides, it is customary for us to consider, that keeping the patient's medical history – also developed by Bolotov, the emergence of which is associated with the, that Andrei Trofimovich himself was engaged in the treatment of all, who asked him for medical help. To everyone who applied – separate notebook.

7. Personal life, a family

Aged 26 years old (1764) Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov married a noblewoman Alexandra Mikhailovna Kaverina. Nine children were born in marriage, four of whom died as children.

8. last years of life

Болотов Андрей биграфия
A. T. Bolotov. Engraving by LA Seryakov

Leaving the management of the imperial estates, Andrey Timofeevich settled in his family estate Dvoryaninovo. Here everything was thought out by him to the smallest detail for the convenience of stay. for instance, the owner deliberately ordered to plant berry bushes next to the benches: and it's nice to sit and relax, and it is useful to eat a berry. There was a grotto on the territory of the estate, which the scientist equipped with a periscope, so that you can admire the local park.

In such a paradise place Bolotov lived the last years of his long and fruitful life.. He passed away two days before his 95th birthday in 1833 year.

Alas, after the death of the owner, the estate did not belong to the Bolotov family for a long time. At the beginning 20 in. the Spaso-Kazan Convent was organized on its territory, which in 1917 year, the Soviet government abolished, and the main manor house was burned down.
Restoration of the Bolotov estate, to convert it into a museum, engaged in 1988 year according to the drawings of Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov himself. Yes, he on top of everything else, was also an amateur artist.
P.S. Here you can see the estate of Bolotov A. T.

Болотов Андрей Тимофеевич (1738-1833), Дворяниново

Kapitsa Petr Leonidovich (1894-1984), Kronstadt-Moscow

Капица П. Л.
1. The year and place of birth of Kapitsa. Origin

Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa (emphasis on I) was born 8 July 1894 in Kronstadt in the family of a military engineer, builder of forts of the Kronstadt fortress, Major General Leonid Petrovich Kapitsa, originating from the Moldavian-gentry clan Kapits-Milevsky.

Petr Leonidovich’s mother came from a Ukrainian Volyn noble family and for her time was a woman of advanced views. After graduating from high school in Tiflis, she rushed to Petersburg, where I entered the Higher Women's Courses. Philologist by Education, Olga Ieronimovna made a great contribution to the development of children's literature in the USSR, becoming the origins of the formation of the publishing house “Detgiz”.

Peter Leonidovich had an older brother – Leonid Leonidovich, known in certain circles as an ethnographer (in particular, he studied the peoples of the North of Russia), as well as a filmmaker (specialized in science films).

Леонид и Петр Капица. Конец 1910-х гг.
Leonid and Peter Kapitsa. The end of the 1910s.
2. Education
Капица Петр
Kapitsa P. L.

IN 1905 year Peter Leonidovich entered the gymnasium, but a year later, due to poor performance in Latin, his parents decided to transfer him to the Kronstadt real school.

After graduating from a real school in 1914 Kapitsa entered the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. The year before, Peter Leonidovich, together with his brother Leonid, went to the Arkhangelsk province, where the latter conducted anthropological and ethnographic studies of Pomors and Lapps (саамов). Pyotr Leonidovich also did not lose time during the expedition, the result of his trip was a research article about, how is fish oil extracted.

In the same 1914 Kapitsa brothers go to the front as volunteers, Where, in particular, Peter Leonidovich was involved in the transportation of the wounded. At the front, he stayed for a relatively short time., he was soon recalled, and the young man continued his studies at the institute.

Портрет Петра Капицы и Николая Семёнова, 1921
Portrait of Pyotr Kapitsa and Nikolai Semenov, 1921

At this time, the famous teacher of the Polytechnic Institute Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (“father of soviet physics”) managed to attract a number of talented and promising students to work in a scientific laboratory, including Kapitsa Peter. Ioffe gave his employees freedom of action in the manifestation of creative initiative and thereby sometimes contributed to the non-standard solution of tasks.

Иоффе А.Ф., Капица П. Л. и Крылов А. Н. 1924 год
Ioffe A.F., Kapitsa P. L. and Krylov A. N. 1924 year
3. English period

After the Civil War, the leadership of the institute organized a delegation, which was supposed to ride in a number of European countries, meet outstanding scientists there and establish scientific contacts with them. Among the selected scientists was Peter Leonidovich Kapitsa.
He was sent to the UK, where he managed to get a job at the Cavendish Laboratory under the leadership of Ernest Rutherford. The relationship between them did not immediately improve, but later Peter Leonidovich managed to gain the trust of a mentor. He also owns the authorship of the nickname Rutherford -“Crocodile”.
At a new location, Kapitsa worked in the field of superstrong magnetic fields.. In a short time, a Soviet scientist got accustomed and surprised his foreign colleagues with his results..

Капица П. Л.

IN 1922 year, Kapitsa defended his thesis on "The passage of alpha particles through matter and methods for producing magnetic fields"

IN 1925 year Peter Leonidovich – Deputy Director, Cavendish Magnetic Research Laboratory. IN 1929 In the year he was elected a full member of the Royal Society of London.

IN 1933 Mondovskaya laboratory was opened in the year (named by sponsor), built specifically for Kapitsa.

4. Homecoming. Success

IN 1934 year, the Soviet leadership tightened control over domestic scientists, located abroad. Information about, that the talented scientist Kapitsa advises European industrialists, and may also be for the British a source of information about the state of affairs in Soviet science, led to, that the country's leadership decided to detain him in the USSR, waiting for the moment, when he comes to visit mother. At the right time, the Kapitza visa was canceled, and he had to stay in Russia.

Капица Петр Леонидович (1894-1984), Кронштадт-Москва

After long negotiations, the British yielded the Mondovian laboratory to the Soviet side, necessary Kapitsa for work, after which she was transported to Moscow and placed in the built in 1937 Institute of Physical Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (IFP), whose director was appointed Kapitsa.

1938 year – the year of the publication of Kapitsa's fundamental discovery on superfluidity of liquid helium. In parallel, the scientist leads research in the development of air separation plants for oxygen production.
24 January 1939 years Peter Leonidovich was admitted to the full members of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

During the Great Patriotic War, the work of the IFP was already in Kazan, where he was hastily evacuated. IN 1942 in the year the first sample of “Object No. 1” was manufactured - a turbo-oxygen installation TK-200 with a capacity of up to 200 kg / h liquid oxygen. In 1945, the productivity of the TK-200 installation increased in 10 time.

5. Nuclear project. Resignation

20 august 1945 of the year the atomic Special Committee under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR was created, led by Beria L. P. Kurchatov I was involved in the work of the committee. IN. and Kapitsa P. L. Kapitsa’s work under the committee didn’t, already in the fall he writes a letter to Stalin And. IN. requesting resignation. The request of the scientist was granted 21 December 1945 of the year. At all, Kapitsa, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, was very straightforward and harsh in his judgments about current problems in science, and, have an opinion, it greatly impressed the Leader.

Капица Петр Леонидович (1894-1984), Кронштадт-Москва

IN 1946 the scientific council of the development of Kapitsa for the production of liquid oxygen were found to be ineffective compared to classical high-pressure plants, and the action of this project froze. However, after much debate, the Kapitsa plants were still successfully introduced into the industry and the use of oxygen for oxygen blasting led to a breakthrough in the steel industry.

17 august 1946 years Kapitsa was removed from the post of director of the IFP. After that, he retired with his family to the state cottage, that Nikolina Gora, and there he continued his research in the field of low temperature physics, separation of isotopes of uranium and hydrogen.
Peter Leonidovich will return to his post as director of the IFP 3 June 1955 of the year. Everything else at that time he was appointed editor-in-chief of the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, and in 1964 from the filing of Kapitsa, a popular science magazine for young people began to be published “Quantum”.
Kapitsa took part in the creation of a research center of the Academgorodok near Novosibirsk and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.

Капица Петр Леонидович (1894-1984), Кронштадт-Москва

IN 1965 Kapitsa received the Niels Bohr International Gold Medal, for this he was allowed to go to Denmark. IN 1969 g. together with his wife Anna Alekseevna Kapitsa visited the USA. IN 1978 Academician Petr Leonidovich was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics “for fundamental inventions and discoveries in the field of low-temperature physics”.

6. Personal life
Капица Петр Леонидович (1894-1984), Кронштадт-Москва

Kapitsa's first wife was Nadezhda Kirillovna Chernosvitova. Their family life ended tragically: in 1919, Nadezhda Kirillovna with two young children died from the raging that year “spanish women”. The scientist’s father also died from the virus.. Peter Leonidovich himself was miraculously able to recover without consequences. At that time, Kapitza was just 26 years old.

Krylova Anna Alekseevna became the second wife of Kapitsa, daughter of the prominent Russian scientist Krylov Alexei Nikolaevich. They met in 1926 in Paris, and soon tied the knot. Moreover, Anna took the initiative in legitimizing relations. Noting the indecision of Peter Leonidovich, she said: “I think, that we should get married”. Together they lived 57 years old. Anna Alekseevna became Pyotr Leonidovich not just a wife, but also a true friend, as well as the secretary. You can read the memoirs of Anna Alekseevna here.

Анна Алексеевна и Петр Леонидович Капица
Anna Alekseevna and Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa

In Cambridge, the couple had two sons: Sergey and Andrey. Sergey Petrovich Kapitsa also became a famous Russian scientist, TV presenters. Andrey Petrovich – geographer, Professor, Moscow University.

Peter Leonidovich Kapitsa passed away 8 april 1984 of the year.

Анна Алексеевна и Петр Леонидович Капица спустя много лет
Anna Alekseevna and Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa many years later
Капица Петр Леонидович (1894-1984), Кронштадт-Москва

Ukhtomsky A. AND. (1875-1942), Vosloma-Leningrad

Ухтомский А. А., физиолог
Ukhtomsky A. AND.
1. Year and place of birth of Ukhtomsky A. Origin
Ухтомский А. А. (1875-1942), Вослома-Ленинград

Alexey Alekseevich Ukhtomsky - an outstanding physiologist, scientist, muscle and nervous systems researcher, as well as the senses, was born in 1875 year 25 June (13 by old. Art.) in the family of a retired military man Alexei Nikolaevich Ukhtomsky, in the family estate of the Ukhtomsky princes, whose family began with the Rurikovich. The estate was located in the village of Vosloma, Rybinsk district. There is no sufficient information, but for some reason, one-year-old Alexei's parents gave him up to an aunt on the father's side, to Rybinsk.

Anna Nikolaevna was a religious woman and raised her nephew in the same traditions. Suffice it to say, that she taught reading and writing to Alexei on “Lives of the saints”, thereby pursuing along the way the goal of the moral education of the child.

Besides, with examples of the actions of outstanding people, she managed to set a fairly high bar, below which Ukhtomsky, sure, in the future, I simply could not act, guided only by lofty ideals and noble goals. Eventually, by the time of further studies, without the participation of his aunt, Ukhtomsky grew up as a whole person, alien to laziness, with great interest in the individual, ready for great achievements.

2. Education
Ухтомский А.
Ukhtomsky A. AND. student.

IN 1888 year at the insistence of his father, requiring the continuation of family traditions, Ukhtomsky entered the Nizhny Novgorod Cadet Corps. Meeting during this period of time with the teacher of mathematics and. P. Dolbney became decisive for the young man: in his studies, the professor carried Ukhtomsky away with the problems of natural science that existed at that time.
During this period, Ukhtomsky gets acquainted with the books of famous thinkers, philosophers, without focusing exclusively on physical and mathematical disciplines.

Upon completion of training in 1894 year Ukhtomsky, yielding to brother's influence, enters the verbal department at the Moscow Theological Academy. All this time by his side (up to 1941) lived housekeeper Nadezhda Ivanovna Bobrovskaya, thanks to her efforts, the scientist was freed from solving everyday issues.

3. The first step into science
Ухтомский А. А. с сотрудниками
Ukhtomsky A. AND. with employees

Once, while studying at the Theological Academy Ukhtomsky A. settled in the Yaroslavl insane asylum, where he lived among the mentally ill, eventually, month and a half. It was a time of observation and rethinking, later Ukhtomsky will say, that this month and a half – the best period of his life.

Observing patients, Ukhtomsky came to the conclusion, that the human mind is not limited and each person is unique in its own way. After a while, these theses formed the basis of the scientist's dissertation “Cosmological evidence for the Genesis of God”.
In the course of reflection, Ukhtomsky decides to understand, how the natural scientific foundations of moral behavior of people are formed. His goal is to study the physiology of the brain and nervous activity..

Ухтомский

Becoming a PhD in Theology, Ukhtomsky abandons his church career. At the same time, for himself, he chooses to serve the Orthodox Old Believers. To this decision, obviously, influenced that, that Alexey Alekseevich spent his childhood surrounded by Old Believers, then densely populated Rybinsk.
Ukhtomsky deliberately refuses the phone, transport and other progressive achievements of its time , at the same time, he made it a rule to provide gratuitous help to those in need everywhere.

Having set a goal to do further natural sciences, Ukhtomsky, Nevertheless, couldn't do it, because. previously received spiritual education prevented. Then Alexey Alekseevich did this: he entered the Faculty of Oriental Studies at St. Petersburg University as a volunteer, where he studied Hebrew in a year, and from the next year he transferred to the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, getting the opportunity, finally, study physiology. So, painlessly bypassing the above ban, a young scientist made progress towards his goal.

5. Dominant of Ukhtomsky
Ухтомский на лекции
AND. Ukhtomsky at a lecture

IN 1902 year Ukhtomsky begins an internship under Professor Vvedensky N. E., together with him, he is working on the reflexes of the antagonists.

IN 1904 Ukhtomsky is working on Vvedensky's experience with a dog. And during one of the experiments, he sees, that at the time of bowel movement the dog, if you scratch her paw, begins to empty more strongly. This observation gave the scientist reason to assume, that there is a certain focus in the human brain, later named by Ukhtomsky as the dominant, which concentrates the strength of the body. Dominant, collecting extraneous signals, fueled by them. And the main conclusion, made later by a scientist, is that, what exactly the dominant determines the life and activity of an individual person.

IN 1911 year Ukhtomsky defended his dissertation, in which he first outlined the principle of dominant, the result of his five years of observations. Another key conclusion of the scientist was the provision that, that a person should not be isolated on himself, leading only internal monologues (“Conversation with the Twin” in the terminology of Ukhtomsky). To understand the world, need at least sometimes “work” on the interlocutor, ie. “include” “dominant on the other”. Ukhtomsky also came to this conclusion., based on my own experience.

On one of the evenings, Alexey Alekseevich met Varvara Alexandrovna Platonova, and throughout 35 for years he corresponded with her. His letters to Varvara Alexandrovna were in the form of a confession, but quite secular content. Confidential communication with the intelligent, well-read person, which besides, actually, attention, delved into the essence of what was stated by the interlocutor and along the way made his comments, allowed Ukhtomsky, thus, step back and look at the train of your thoughts from the outside.

6. Years of revolution
Ухтомский А. А.

IN 1917 year, revolutionary changes affected Ukhtomsky. The house in Rybinsk was nationalized. The scientist himself was arrested, in connection with the allegedly careless statements. Papers from the Petrosovet saved him from being shot, a member of which he was from the university.

IN 1922 year after the death of Vvedensky, Ukhtomsky headed the Department of Physiology and Animals at Petrograd University. He still worked hard and gave lectures., at the same time, scientific activity did not prevent him from performing the duties of the headman of the Church of the Common faith. In addition, Ukhtomsky masterfully painted icons and was engaged in painting, mastered 7 languages ​​and understood political economy.

During the Great Patriotic War, Ukhtomsky remained in Leningrad, here he did research on traumatic shock, the accompanying military environment. The last work of the scientist was the report “Reflex system in the ascending row”. He did not have time to read it. 31 august 1942 the outstanding Russian scientist-physiologist Alexey Alekseevich Ukhtomsky died.

Ухтомский А. А. (1875-1942), Вослома-Ленинград

Extremes of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov: T-15 and democratic values

When Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, scientist, who made a fair share of efforts in the development of domestic science, suddenly began to deal with humanitarian problems, it looked amazing and beautiful at the same time. But when is he, adult and reasonable person, at the time of global political tension, by his criticism of the state and social state of affairs in his homeland, he began to play along in this confrontation with its potential adversary, this somewhat spoiled his initially noble image. The contradictory attitude towards the academician persists to this day.

андрей сахаров
1. Place and years of birth of Andrei Sakharov

Andrey Sakharov was born 21 may 1921 years in Moscow. His father was a professor, physics teacher at the Moscow Pedagogical Institute. Mother, Ekaterina Sofriano, gymnastics teacher, hereditary noblewoman from the genus of Russified Greeks, military daughter.

Детство и молодость Сахарова
Childhood and youth of Sakharov
2. Education and research

Sakharov received his primary education at home, studied at school from the 7th grade. IN 1938 graduated from high school with honors and entered the Physics Department of Moscow University.

IN 1942 year, being in evacuation in Ashgabat, in Turkmenistan, Graduated with honors from Moscow State University. In September 1942 Sakharov was assigned to a military plant in Ulyanovsk, where to 1945 year worked as an engineer-inventor and became the author of a number of inventions of the product control method.

FROM 1943 – 1944 Sakharov did several scientific works on his own and sent them to FIAN.. Lebedev to Igor Tamm. IN 1945 g. he entered graduate school at the Physics Institute. In November 1947 g. defended his thesis. IN 1953 g. defended his doctoral dissertation, and in the same year was elected a member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. IN 1969 Sakharov returned to scientific work at the Physics Institute. There he was recruited to the position of Senior Research Fellow. FROM 1967 by 1980 gg. he posted more 15 scientific works.

3. T-15 supertorpedo

IN 1948 year A. Sakharov was included in the research group for the development of thermonuclear weapons and worked there until 1968 of the year. He was offered his own project of a bomb in the form of layers of deuterium and natural uranium around a conventional atomic charge.. The work ended successfully with the test of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb 12 august 1953 of the year.

Scientists were asked to arm the developed nuclear submarines of the project with giant torpedoes with 100-megaton charges 627 and deliver them to the shores of the United States. Further, according to Sakharov's plan, should have been followed by an explosion off the coast of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, which would cause a huge tsunami and wipe out part of America from the face of the earth. The super torpedo project was named T-15.

However, the Soviet leadership of the Navy categorically refused to use such “inhuman” methods in the fight against the enemy.

Водородная бомба Сахарова
Sakharov's hydrogen bomb
4. Sakharov's wives

The first wife of an academician in 1943 year became Claudia Vikhareva. The couple had three children: Tatyana, Love and Dmitry. IN 1969 year Sakharov's wife died, and he married Elena Bonner. In the past, Bonner was a pediatrician, but then most of her life she played the role of an oppositionist and human rights defender. She directed her husband to the same activity., prominent academician, which he himself confessed, that all decisions in their family are made by the wife: “She is my organizer, my brain center”.

Сахаров и Боннэр
Sakharov and Bonner
5. Sakharov – human rights defender

Since the late 50s, Academician Sakharov begins to engage in human rights activities. IN 1968 year in samizdat his article "Reflections on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom ", which after a while got into the Western press, and Andrei Dmitrievich was removed from secret work and fired from the institute.

Then Academician Sakharov became one of the founders of the Human Rights Committee. He spoke out for the abolition of mortal kani, for the right to emigrate, against compulsory treatment of dissidents in psychiatric hospitals, helped the Crimean Tatars to return to Crimea.

When, seemingly, positive action, Sakharov, he, often coupled with his wife E. Bonner, behaved frankly hooligan defiant, or rather, inadequately. IN 1976 year at the Omsk Regional Court, Sakharov and his wife began to strike at the police, while insulting them and shouting: “There you are, puppies, from the academician”. The court commandant Bonner, who tried to calm down the Sugar couple, was hit in the face.

A similar situation occurred in 1977 g. at the Irkutsk airport, this time in relation to airport workers.

IN 1978 year inherited from the academician and officials of the administration of the Moscow Pedagogical Institute named after. Lenin.

IN 1978 Sakharov again inflicted insults and blows on the police at the building of the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries and at the Lublin District People's Court. Of Moscow.

Крайности Андрея Дмитриевича Сахарова: Т-15 и демократические ценности

In parallel with his human rights activities, Sakharov decided, what has the concept, how best to rebuild Russia. To start, according to the scientist, it is necessary to dismember our state into small independent areas, which then should be placed under the control of the world government. It's necessary, ostensibly for rapprochement with the progressive West.

“Wonderful” Sakharov also made a decision regarding the ecology in the world, dividing the land into “clean”, livable, and “dirty”, where the waste would be collected and the most life-threatening production would be located. Naturally the territory of Russia, according to the plan of the scientist, more suitable for the second category.

Сахаров депутат и правозащитник
Sakharov MP and human rights activist

Sakharov behaved especially peculiarly during that period., when a limited contingent of Soviet troops entered Afghanistan. This decision is still contested., but that's not the point. The bottom line is, that a domestic human rights activist confidently spread rumors in a civilized society, scooped by him from foreign sources, about the state of affairs of our fighters in “hot spot”:

Quote from “Komsomolskaya Pravda” from 2 Martha 1989 of the year: “Recently, the editorial office received a copy of the Canadian newspaper “Ottawa city” , in which the report on the press conference of Academician A. Sakharov and his wife E. Bonner in Canada. Among other things, it was stated, that during the hostilities in Afghanistan, Soviet helicopters repeatedly opened fire on the surrounded Soviet soldiers in order to avoid their surrender. “TVNZ” considered it fundamentally important to get on this matter from Academician A. D. Sakharov's comprehensive explanations. All last night we tried to find him in Canada. Late night we got through to Boston. First question on the phone:
– Is the information of the Canadian newspaper true?, about the content of your speech at the press conference.
– .. I really reminded of the facts, when Soviet helicopters shot the surrounded Soviet soldiers, so that they cannot surrender. These facts, according to the testimony of witnesses, there were. I was based on those testimonies, which I knew.
– How do you know the facts of the destruction of the surrounded Soviet soldiers?? Do you have any proof?
– I was based on reports from the Western press and radio stations. I AM, Unfortunately, now I can not give specific links to those people, in which this can be confirmed on the participants in the war. This claim is based on testimony., it's all, What can I say.

6. Prize

IN 1975 year in the West the book "About the country and the world" was published, in which Sakharov developed ideas, previously expressed in Reflections on Progress, and in the same year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize “for fearless support for the fundamental principles of peace among people” and “for courageous struggle against abuse of power and any form of suppression of human dignity”.

Нобелевская премия Сахарова
Sakharov Nobel Prize
7. Sakharov's three hunger strikes

8 January 1980 Sakharov was deprived of all government awards and prizes, including the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. 22 January he was exiled to g. Bitter (Nizhny Novgorod). Bonner followed..

When the question of Bonner's departure abroad arose after his daughter-in-law, the Soviet leadership denied her this. Honored Academician then went on a hunger strike, дабы вынудить их изменить свое решение. After 17 дней отказа Сахаровым от пищи правительство пошло правозащитникам на уступки, однако в скором времени обвинили Боннэр в «участии в антисоветской деятельности»

Тогда Сахаров решил испытать проверенный уже однажды метод во второй раз, и тем самым добиться отменить столь серьезное обвинение своей супруги. Тема 26 дневной голодовки ученого, угнетаемого советским режимом, широко освещалось в те дни рядом зарубежных СМИ.

Третью голодовку Сахаров объявил сроком на 178 дней. Кремль не стал дожидаться неприятностей и упрятал академика в психбольницу, где его насильно накормили и подлечили. And in 1986 году М. FROM. Горбачев лично позвонил Сахарову и попросил вернуться. Страна готовилась к Перестройке.

8. Поездка в царство демократии

IN 1988 year A. D. Сахаров впервые выехал за рубеж. Приняли его там как высокопоставленного гостя. Большую честь нобелевскому лауреату оказали Р. Рейган, M. Тетчер, F. Миттеран, встретившись с инм. Множество пресс-конференций было проведено академиком для западной аудитории. Тогда же и была рассказана им история о злостных действиях советской летчиков против своих же солдат.

Сахаров и Р. Рейган
Сахаров и Р. Рейган
9. Кончина

В марте 1989 года Сахаров был избран народным депутатом СССР. В декабре этого же года он скончался от сердечного приступа.

Крайности Андрея Дмитриевича Сахарова: Т-15 и демократические ценности

Gakkel Yakov Modestovich (1874-1945), Иркутск – St. Petersburg

Гаккель Яков Модестович
Hakkel I. M.

В начале ХХ века авиация в нашей стране развивалась особенно активно. Это легендарное время первых полетов, изобретений и новых конструкторских решений.

Одной из ярких и неординарных фигур в истории авиации этого времени стал ученый, профессор Яков Модестович Гаккель. Именно он разработал передовые идеи для конструкции аэропланов.

Яков Модестович родился 12 may 1874 года в Иркутске. IN 1907 году он окончил Электротехнический институт в Петербурге, а спустя шесть лет он начал там свою преподавательскую деятельность. Примерно в это же время увлекся самолетостроением.

IN 1909 году Гаккель вместе с юристом и начинающим промышленником, Сергеем Щетининым, построил небольшой ангар на ипподроме, where he began the construction of his first airplane “Yamg”, having designed it according to your own project. The money for the construction of the aircraft was allocated as a bonus from the Joint Stock Company “Вестенгаузена”. 13 July 1909 года партнеры открыли свое собственное предприятие по производству самолетов ТовариществоБиплан ЯМГ”. ЯМГэто аббревиатура имени-отчества и фамилии самого изобретателя.

Гаккель_VII, аэроплан, 12 мая родился Яков Гаккель
Гаккель-VII

Первые аэропланы Гаккеля резко отличались от уже существующих зарубежных моделей. So, несущие плоскости аппарата располагались не отвесно одна над другой, а как ступеньки лестницы. Руль высоты находился не спереди, как тогда было принято, а сзади на хвосте. Такие решения были не только оригинальными, но и улучшали летные качества аппарата.

However, оригинальные решения изобретателя не находили поддержки со стороны его компаньона Щетинина, который считал более выгодным серийно изготавливать в производстве аэропланы, признанных европейских мастеров. Из-за этого их партнерство продлилось недолго. Не найдя взаимопонимания, Гаккель и Щетинин рассорились. Яков Модестович, выйдя из Товарищества, продолжил самостоятельно строить самолеты за личные средства.

Гаккель и Шавров, авиаконструктор
Гаккель и Шавров

In May 1910 года Гаккель заканчивает строительство одного из самых знаменитых своих аппаратоваэропланаГаккель – 3”. Он представляет собой фюзеляжный биплан, самолет с двумя несущими поверхностями, крыльями, который оснащался мотором, мощностью 35 лошадиных сил.

Аппарат был перевезен на Гатчинский аэродром, Where 6 June 1910 года комиссией Имперского аэроклуба на нем был зафиксирован первый полет по прямой на расстоянии 200 метров, под управлением пилота Булгакова.

To 1924 года Яков Модестович спроектировал около полутора десятков самолетов, девять из которых были построены, а семь не только летали, но и показывали выдающиеся для своего времени достижения. Его аэропланы различной конструкции, среди которых был первый самолет-амфибия, принимали участие в выставках, устанавливали рекорды. Но несмотря на это, в промышленном масштабе не выпускались. Отсутствие заказов и финансирования привело к тому, what in 1912 году конструктор был вынужден от активной деятельности в области авиации. Позднее Гаккель вернется к разработке новых самолетов.

Гаккель 7, авиаконструктор Яков Гаккель родился 12 мая
Гаккель VII

По некоторым данным причиной отсутствия заказов была недобросовестная конкуренция. for instance, авиаконструктор и историк авиации Вадим Шавров писал, что механик самолетов Гаккеля был подкуплен конкурирующим заводомДукси подливал серную кислоту в двигатели, чем выводил их из строя. Два аэроплана, в том числе и неординарныйГаккель – 9” даже сгорели вместе с ангаром по неустановленной причине.

В 1920-х годах Яков Модестович начинает заниматься тепловозостроением, хотя создание летательных аппаратов всегда имело для него первостатейное значение.

IN 1938 году он писал к своему другу, летчику Водопьянову: “Подводя итоги к 40-летнему юбилею моей инженерной деятельности, я больше всего сожалею, что забросил самолетостроение”.
Но все же Гаккель продолжал реализовывать себя в качестве инженера. Ему принадлежит создание тепловоза Щэл1, сконструировал паровой трактор. Разработанная им паровая установка использовалась на реечных катерах.

Тепловоз Щэл1, Гаккель Я. М., авиаконструктор родился 12 мая
Тепловоз Щэл1

Яков Модестович Гаккель умер в 1945 году в Петербурге. В этом городе он проработал всю свою жизнь, здесь же в честь него названа одна из улиц и посвящен мемориал. Его различные исследования оставили след, как в истории авиации, так и в других отраслях, послужив основой для дальнейших изобретений будущих поколений.

мемориальная доска Гаккелю
Гаккель Яков Модестович (1874-1945), Иркутск - Санкт-Петербург

Колмогоров Андрей Николаевич (1903-1987), Тамбов – Moscow

академик Колмогоров
Колмогоров А. N.

1. Кто такой Колмогоров Андрей Николаевич

Колмогоров Андрей Николаевичодин из основоположников современной теории вероятности. К его фундаментальным достижениям относятся работы по теории функций, математической логике, функциональному анализу, дифференциальным уравнениям. Колмогоров автор большого количества работ по философии, истории, педагогике.

2. Year and place of birth. Origin

Родился Колмогоров 25 april 1903 года в Тамбове. Мать Андрея Николаевича, Мария Яковлевна Колмогорова, имела дворянское происхождение. His father – Николай Матвеевич Катаевимел агрономическое образование и за поддержку народнического движения был выл выслан в Ярославскую губернию. Там-то и состоялась встреча будущих родителей Андрея Николаевича. Молодые люди хотя и проживали вместе, но повенчаны не были.

В ожидании малыша пара перебралась в Крым. Ближе к родам Мария Яковлевна отправилась к родителям в их имение под Ярославлем, а по пути следования остановилась у подруги в Тамбове, да там, едва разрешившись от бремени, умерла. Воспитанием ребенка занялись сестры матери, а одна из нихВера Яковлевнаусыновила его. Отец будущего ученого в воспитании сына участия не принимал.

3. Education

Колмогоров Андрей Николаевич, фото 1930
Колмогоров А. Н., 1930 year

Математический талант Андрея Николаевича проявился довольно рано. In particular, known, что Вера Яковлевна организовала для детей, живших неподалеку, нечто вроде школы и там применяла различные методики, чтобы привлечь внимание детей к обучению. So, it “запустилаиздание рукописного журналаВесенние ласточки”, в котором публиковались работы детей. Пятилетний Андрюша тогда впервые опубликовал своюнаучнуюработу, самостоятельно освоив алгебраическую закономерность.

IN 1910 году Вера Яковлевна перебралась с Андреем в Москву. Здесь мальчик был принят в частную гимназию Е. AND. Репман и в короткий срок проявил незаурядные способности в математике. Nonetheless, интересы Колмогорова были сосредоточены не только на математике. Его интересовала история и политика, да так, what in 17 лет был серьезно озабочен поиском неких принципов, which should be adhered to by humanity.

IN 1920 year Andrei Nikolaevich entered Moscow University at the Faculty of Mathematics and at the same time at the Mathematical Department of the Chemical-Technological Institute named after. D. AND. Mendeleev. Eventually, he will give preference all the same to the university, where he was lucky to learn from the best teachers. Almost immediately, Kolmogorov passed all the subjects for the course and was transferred to 2 course. This gave him the opportunity to receive, kind, scholarship, consisting of food. This was very significant support at the time..

4. Scientist career

Колмогоров А. Н. фото

FROM 1931 years Kolmogorov – профессор Московского государственного университета, from 1939 – академик Академии наук СССР, доктор физико-математических наук. Лауреат Ленинской и Сталинских премии.

FROM 1931 years Kolmogorov – профессор Московского государственного университета, from 1939 – академик Академии наук СССР, доктор физико-математических наук. Лауреат Ленинской и Сталинских премии.

IN 1964 year – член Лондонского королевского общества, in 1967 year – Национальной академии наук США, in 1968 year – Французской академии наук, также Польской, Нидерландской, Венгерской и Финляндской академии наук.

FROM 1962 года член Лондонского математического общества, также Индийского математического общества. FROM 1961 года член Американского философского общества. Почетный доктор Парижского университета (1955), Стокгольмского университета (1960), Индийского статистического института (1962).

Sunset

Скончался Колмогоров 20 October 1987 of the year. За 8 лет до этого он получил травму головы, и это сильно повлияло на его здоровье. In addition to this, Parkinson's disease also developed.. Until his death, Kolmogorov remained in the position of head of the Department of Mathematical Logic at Moscow State University. The scientist was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.