Alexandra Kollontai (1872-1952), St. Petersburg – Moscow

Алксандра Коллонтай.

1. Alexandra Kollontai (Domontovich), year and place of birth. Coming

Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai was born 19 Martha 1872 g. in St. Petersburg in a noble and wealthy family.
Kollontai's maiden name – Domontovich. This surname is derived from the name of an old ancestor of Alexandra Mikhailovna Dovmont Pskovsky, who lived in 18 in. and who reigned in Pskov.
Head of the Domontovich family, Mikhail Alekseevich, of Ukrainian nobles, noble general, Respected man. During the Russian-Turkish war (1878-1879) was in the midst of events in the Balkans, and later governor of Tarnovo in Bulgaria.

Alexandra Mikhailovna's mother was the daughter of Alexander Masalin, a buyer and seller of the forest., arrived in St. Petersburg from Finland. And although he was an enterprising man and successfully made a fortune for himself, his surname was not well-born. However, this convention did not prevent, eventually, to become related to him with the authoritative family Domontovich.
Историю своей семьи Коллонтай подробно описывает в memoirs “From my life and work”.

2. Education. Marriage.

Семья Коллонтай - Александра, муж Владимир, сын Миша.

Kollontai's passion for revolutionary ideas was preceded by years of home schooling, quality and versatile. Among other necessary educational skills, Alexandra spoke German, French, English, Finnish, which served her in the future as a good help in campaigning.
Before, how the first thoughts about the transformation of tsarist Russia appeared, Shura Domontovich dreamed of becoming a writer and even wrote a novel. For an objective assessment of her writing skills, she sent the story to the writer Korolenko, who answered her with an unflattering review: “If you wrote propaganda leaflets, you could achieve more. You have less data on fiction ". So, one might say, Korolenko gave “green light” the future revolutionary and professional agitator Kollontai.

IN 1893 year Alexandra Mikhailovna married a graduate of the Military Engineering Academy, officer Vladimir Kollontai, which was her, by the way, second cousin. Soon the couple had a son, Misha. However, the way of life and the standard pastime for women of that era did not correspond to the living, ideological and active character of Alexandra. She wanted to devote herself to something more, than just family.
Watching the dark and hard life of the common working people, Kollontai finds, that helping him to free himself from this would be a noble and right thing. Moreover, the position of women in the world seems to her also depressing, and she cannot leave him without attention either. Through her ex-teacher, she gets close to the underground movement, where he meets Elena Stasova, an active member of the Russian revolution, who taught her the basics of conspiratorial work.

3. The road to revolution

Коллонтай Александра Михайловна
Kollontai A. M.

… Abroad, I could read all the literature forbidden in Russia and meet living people, participating in the labor movement. I could leave my little Misha with my parents, and Kollontai must understand, what i want in life and why i. must leave him. If he does not understand this, it means, we can't live our lives together anyway. I will not give up my task. I will go to those, who wants the liberation of workers from capitalism, from tsarism.

Kollontai A. M. “From my life and work”

Taking advantage of the plausible excuse to study in Zurich, in 1898 year Kollontai takes off and leaves her husband and son for Europe, to get acquainted with the revolutionary ideas of Marx there. A year later, Kollontai returned. During this time, she wrote many articles., literary and scientific works. It is published in various publications, and in parallel, Kollontai is engaged in underground work. On her next trip abroad, she meets Rosa Luxemburg, moves closer to Plekhanov.

9 December 1905 of the year Kollontai was in St. Petersburg and witnessed the events “Bloody Sunday”. In her memoirs, she describes what happened in the colors typical of the opposition., accusing tsarism of an inhuman attitude towards its people, silent, meanwhile, about provocations by trained rebels.
In the same 1905 Kollontai meets V. Lenin.

IN 1908 year Alexandra Kollontai hastily emigrated. She was accused of calling for an armed uprising in the book “Finland and socialism”. Abroad Kollontai did not stop her active work, on the contrary, developed ee. Visited a number of European countries, visited the USA, where she also lectured, calling on the common people to unite for the war against capitalism.

The essence of Kollontai's campaigns: people should forget about their nationality, be above this. Unite people, in this case, will be by class. By another active appeal to the masses, to act as a united front against the war, the soldiers were asked to lay down their arms. By the aspirations of the revolutionaries, it is in the hands of the common people, as the most interested party, there is the will to stop this bloody war, unleashed by the capitalists (speech about the first world war).
The best outcome for the Russian Empire in the war is a loss – such attitude to the position of Russia in this world battle was formulated by V.. AND. Lenin, and Kollontai, his ardent supporter, this formulation was actively introduced to the masses. So, according to the revolutionaries, imperialist war will grow into a civil war. And only after that is it possible to build a just society..

4. After the revolution 1917

Коллонтай А. М., революционерка

After the victory of the revolution in February 1917, Kollontai was elected a member of the CEC from the Bolsheviks. For active anti-war agitation among soldiers and sailors in the conditions established in the country “dual power” Alexandra Mikhailovna was arrested and sent to prison at the suggestion of the Provisional Government. Through the efforts of M. Gorky and L. Beauty, her nevertheless, soon released.

30 October 1917 Kollontai received personally from V. Lenin's post of People's Commissar of Public Charity in the 1st composition of the Council of People's Commissars, thus, she became one of the first female minister. In this position, in difficult conditions and in a short time, she managed to arrange the payment of pensions and wages to the population..
It was on her initiative that the Department for the Protection of Maternity and Infancy was formed, as well as the Collegium for the Protection and Provision of Motherhood and Infancy. Now every woman and her children could count on the protection of the state.

In January 1918 years in “Proclamation” Patriarch Tikhon Alexander Kollontai was anathematized. The reason: an attempt by an activist to requisition the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in Petrograd. Under the command of Kollontai sailors acted, who met a tough opposition from believers. Archpriest Pyotr Sceptrov died during the action. Ugly story turned out.

5. Struggle for women's rights.

Коллонтай А .М.

In pre-revolutionary Russia, the activity of women has noticeably increased, and, Consequently, based on a certain ideological or political position, they began to group together in various circles and organizations. Kollontai did not belong to any of these groups., although I was in contact with their members. For Alexandra Mikhailovna, that position for a woman, promoted by feminists, suffragettes, etc.. seemed too limited.
Woman in the construction of the Soviet state, according to Kollontai, should march in the same ranks with men, on a par with him. It was this task that she pursued, when on her initiative in 1919 the Women's Department of the Central Committee of the RCP was created(b). Female illiteracy has been given battle, magazines for women began to be published (“Female worker”), women were invited to meetings and conferences, and also in every possible way involved in work in various institutions of women's departments, thereby awakening in them the desire to join the socio-political life of the state.

6. The glass of water theory

For her ideological position regarding the position of women in the young state, Alexandra Kollontai is often credited with authorship “glass of water theory”, very popular with young people in the 1920s, the essence of which boils down to one simple thought: to satisfy their instinctive sexual needs, a person should not experience difficulty, in the form of obligations to a partner. It's enough just to be him, least, cute. Sex without love and commitment – a simple action is akin to the elementary ability to drink a glass of water at the moment of thirst. Nonetheless, Kollontai is not the author of this theory, however, similar motives can be found in her theoretical works regarding “new woman” in new conditions: “The family is no longer necessary. The state does not need it, because it distracts women from useful work to society, not needed by family members, since the upbringing of children is gradually taken over by the state” or “The obsolete institution of the family contradicts the idea of ​​communism; instead, you just need to create a fund to help everyone, who needs because of the consequences of free love”.

7. Personal life. Pavel Dybenko

Дыбенко П. и Коллонтай А.
Dybenko P. and Kollontai A.

The personal life of Alexandra Kollontai was very eventful. She, perhaps, was the type of woman, which are usually called “fatal”, or was just a woman with a cold mind.
The first known to us “victims” Ostrogradsky became a teacher of Russian literature out of love for Alexandra. The man wanted to get poisoned, but they managed to pump it out.
Second – Ivan Dragomirov, son of the famous commander Dragomirov, acted for sure: killed by a bullet, shot himself.
Alexander Shlyapnikov, responsible person in the Bolshevik Party, spent some time as a civil husband of Kollontai, after breaking up got a nervous breakdown.
Further, Marine officer (name unknown), in love with Kollontai, committed suicide, learning about its practical application in life “glass of water theory”. So that, on this list “unfortunate” Kollontai's first legal husband got off relatively easily – Vladimir. He died in a hospital in 1917 g.

“Reverse” on the love front flew to Kollontai in 1917 year in the form of Pavel Efimovich Dybenko. People's Commissar for Maritime Affairs (naval minister), head of Tsentrobalt, he became the legal spouse of Alexandra Mikhailovna. The age difference between the newlyweds was 17 years old. Alexandra Mikhailovna at that time turned 45 years old, Dybenko – 28. She – educated noblewoman from the capital, he – illiterate sailor from Chernihiv region. But a spark lit up between them, passion of this kind, that Kollontai never ceased to be amazed at herself, discovering, that she is capable of feeling jealousy and other possessive feelings towards a man, which was completely at odds with her understanding of the image “new woman” in the Soviet state, completely free from such prejudices. Perhaps, of all the lovers still present in her life, Dybenko lasted the longest.

Коллонтай А. и Дыбенко П.
Kollontai A. and Dybenko P.

Dybenko had great authority among the sailors, and this fact forced the Bolshevik government to communicate with it carefully, even in those cases, when he behaved arbitrarily.
In February 1918 years of the Red Army, acting under the command of Dybenko, could not withstand the attacks of the Kaiser's troops near Pskov and Narva and retreated to Yamburg. Here Dybenko was supposed to join up with the troops of General Parsky D. P., but instead he began to behave with the once tsarist general in an indicative disdainful, не желая согласовывать военные действия против врага. Further, оказавшись в Москве, Дыбенко своим неадекватным поведением вынудил Ленина дать приказ арестовать его. Вызволять мужа бросилась Коллонтай. Ей, как авторитетной большевичке, выдали супруга на поруки, однако вскоре он бежал из-под надзора в Самару в сопровождении несколько сотен матросов. После длительных переговоров Дыбенко уговаривают вернуться в Москву (снова не без участия Коллонтай), где над ним состоялся суд. Дыбенко оправдывают, но из партии все-таки исключают.
Вскоре после этого Дыбенко попал к немцам в плен. Ему грозил расстрел, но вмешательство Коллонтай в очередной раз поменяло ход событий: Дыбенко обменяли на немецкого пленного офицера.
По прошествии некоторого времени Дыбенко снова получил возможность командовать воинским подразделением и со временем даже стал командующим Крымской армией.

Однако и этим отношениям суждено было завершиться. Постоянные измены мужа совершенно извели Коллонтай, пришлось ей унижаться до ревнивых истерик. После очередной из них Дыбенко выстрелил себе в грудь, но пуля попала в орден и не достигла цели. Его отправился лечиться в госпиталь, and Kollontai “сбежалаот любви в должности посла в Норвегию по назначению И. Сталина. Дыбенко Павел был расстрелян в феврале 1938 of the year.

8. Первая женщина-посол

Коллонтай А. цветное фото
Kollontai A. M.

IN 1922 году Александра Коллонтай была направлена И. IN. Сталиным чрезвычайным и полномочным послом в Норвегию. В истории до этого момента женщина-посол была замечена единожды и то в далеком 17 in. (Катарина Стопиа, посол Швеции в России). FROM 1926 by 1927 Коллонтай налаживала советско-мексиканские отношения, находясь в Мексике.

During the period 1930-1945 gg. Alexandra Mikhailovna – посол в Швеции. Ее усилиями поддерживался нейтралитет этой страны в период борьбы Гитлера за симпатии в Скандинавии.
IN 1944 году Коллонтай снова взялась за посредническую роль на переговорах о выходе Финляндии из войны, и работу свою выполнила успешно.

9. last years of life

В должности посла в Швеции Коллонтай пробыла до 1945 of the year. В марте она прибыла в Москву, а в июле завершила свою, так сказать, дипломатическую карьеру. Причины тому объективные: почтенный возраст (73 of the year) и последствия перенесенного инсульта. После этого, Александра Михайловна занялась написанием мемуаров. Много воспоминаний она оставила о Ленине В. AND.

Умерла Александра Коллонтай 9 Martha 1952 g. во сне от инфаркта. Похоронена в Москве на Новодевичьем кладбище.

Александра Коллонтай (1872-1952), Санкт-Петербург - Москва

Знаменитые женщины-революционерки России

К нач. 20 in. в российском обществе женская его половина все увереннее стала заявлять о своем праве жить без ограничивающих ее деятельность условий. Многие женщины осознали, что готовы выйти из рамок семейных обязанностей и проявить себя в других сферах жизни. In particular, оказалось, что такое чисто мужское намерение, как подготовка и проведение в стране госпереворота, характерно и вчерашним кисейным барышням. First of all, романтикой революции увлеклись образованные, родовитые дамы, и некоторые из них показали впечатляющую продуктивность.
Здесь будет постепенно формироваться список женских имен революционерок из различных политических партий с кратким изложением их биографии и заслуг в ходе радикальных перемен и впоследствии.

1. Alexandra Kollontai (Domontovich)

Александра Коллонтай (Домонтович), жизнь и деятельность
Alexandra Kollontai (Domontovich)

Александра Михайловна Коллонтай (1872-1952), дворянка, отец высокопоставленный генерал, участник и герой русско-турецкой войны (1877-1878gg). Своенравная, образованная, в один прекрасный момент, уже будучи замужней дамой, она осознала, что не хочет жить прежней сытой жизнью, while, как простой народ страдает от деспота-царя. Со всей своей энергией она влилась в социал-демократическое движение, а после свершившейся революции стала первой в мире женщиной-министром: в первом Советском правительстве Коллонтай была избрана наркомом государственного призрения (социального обеспечения). В тяжелых условиях 1917 – 1918 gg. Александре Михайловне удалось организовать работу по социальной помощи населению.

Другой важной деятельностью Коллонтай отметилась на посту посла от СССР в Швеции. Здесь во время Второй Мировой войны она приложила ряд усилий в поддержании Швецией нейтралитета, а также, используя шведские наработки, in 1944 g. посодействовала выходу Финляндии из войны.

Ведущую роль Коллонтай сыграла также в деле разрушения пережитков прошлого относительно женщин. Она публично поддерживала мысль о том, что женщина может быть самостоятельной единицей, а не только приложением своему мужу. При этом институт семьи Коллонтай никогда не отрицала, подчеркивая лишь важность гендерного равноправия.

2. Лариса Рейснер

Лариса Рейснер, революционерка
Лариса Рейснер

Лариса Михайловна Рейснер (1895-1926) – талантливая писательница и журналистка. Родилась в обеспеченной и интеллигентной семье. Идеями коммунизма увлеклась еще в юности. В литературе Лариса заявила о себе в возрасте 18 years old. IN 20 лет вместе с отцом издавала журналаРудин”, суть которого сводилась к сатире над особенностями русской жизни.

В революционном движении Лариса быстро нашла себе место, and now she is already the Commissioner of the Baltic Fleet. IN 1918 year – Reisner is a member of the CPSU(b), Commissioner of the General Staff of the Navy, participant of hostilities in Kazan. IN 1921 year together with her husband F. Раскольниковым отправляется с дипмиссией в Афганистан.
Свидетельница Гамбургского восстания в Германии, Рейснер описала это событие в своей книге и очерках. Поездка на Донбасс завершилась сборником «Уголь, железо и живые люди».

Внешне привлекательная, Рейснер была знаменита своими любовными романами. В числе особо обсуждаемых из них ее отношения с Николаем Гумилевым. Писатель и моряк, поклонник джаза, Колбасьев С. AND. также входил в число ее поклонников. Тем не менее замуж вышла Лариса за Федора Раскольникова, дипломата по роду деятельности. Однако и эти отношения оказались недолгосрочны, как и все последующие ее романы.
maybe, какой-то счастливец и смог быобуздать” “валькирию революции”, однако жизнь ей была отмерена сроком 30 years old. Скончалась Рейснер, one might say, прозаично, учитывая ее насыщенную жизнь: умерла она от брюшного тифа, которым заразилась вместе с матерью и братом, выпив сырого молока. Мать и брат выжили, у Ларисы не хватило для этого ни душевных, ни физических сил.

3. Надежда Крупская

Надежда Крупская в молодости
Надежда Крупская

Надежда Константиновна Крупская (1869-1939) более известна нам как помощница В. AND. Lenin. Но значение ее, sure, гораздо шире. В молодом советском государстве именно Крупская задавала вектор развития культурной политики. Надежда Константиновна была помощницей, а также заместительницей наркома просвещения Луначарского. В ее ведомстве находилось создание изб-читален, библиотек, она запускала программы просвещения крестьянства, а также занималась многими другими образовательными моментами.

По инициативе Надежды Константиновны в 1918 g. был создан Петроградский институт внешкольного образования, в котором готовились кадры для борьбы с безграмотностью среди населения. Позже этот институт вырос в С.-Петербургский институт культуры. Такого рода программа оказалась продуктивной и дала свои плоды: в СССР смогли получить образование все. И если ранее это была прерогатива в основном высших слоев населения, после 1917 все советские люди получили равные возможности.

4. Елена Стасова

Стасова Елена, женщины в русской революции
Стасова Елена

Елена Дмитриевна Стасова происходила из знаменитой семьи дореволюционной России. Дед ее, Василий Петрович Стасов, видный архитектор, построивший, in particular, Троицкий собор в Санкт-Петербурге.
Сын его, Владимир Васильевич Стасов (дядя Елены Дмитриевны) – publicist, art critic, известный художественный критик, был человеком влиятельным в кругах интеллигенции. for instance, при его активном участии широкую популярность получило творчество художников-передвижников.
Отец Елены Стасовой, Дмитрий Васильевич, был не менее влиятельным. По роду деятельности он был адвокатом, взглядов придерживался демократических. В обществе за ним закрепилось прозвищесовесть русской адвокатуры”. Вот в такой семье формировалось мировоззрение Елены Стасовой, яркой участницы революционных событий.

Долгое время Стасова работала в структурах Коминтерна, позже в издательском деле. Во время Великой отечественной войны Елена Дмитриевна просилась на фронт в качестве военного переводчика, because. хорошо знала иностранные языки. Но в силу возраста ей отказали в этом. Прожила Стасова долгую жизнь, пользуясь народными почетом и уважением. Оставила после себя достойные прочтения мемуары.

5. Мария Спиридонова

Мария Спиридонова, русская революционерка из эсеров
Мария Спиридонова

Мария Александровна Спиридонова в отличии от предыдущих в списке большевичек была одним из лидеров партии левых эсеров. Спиридонову можно назвать одной из самых ярких фигур в революционном движении, kind, его символом.
За участие в террористической деятельности в ходе революции 1905-1907 gg. Мария была арестована, сильно избита жандармами, после чего отправлена в Сибирь, где она пробыла до амнистии в феврале 1917 g. После своего возвращения из ссылки Спиридонова, благодаря приставшему к ней образу мученицы, молниеносно взлетела на политический российский Олимп.

В ходе революции 1917 года партия эсеров раскололась, и Спиридонова возглавила ее левое крыло, придерживавшееся более радикальных позиций, а в октябре 1917 года пошла на коалицию с большевиками.

Характер у Спиридоновой был волевой, она бескомпромиссно дискутировала по текущим вопросам с В. Lenin, со Свердловым во ВЦИКе. 6 July 1918 года Спиридонова стала одной из сторонниц мятежа левых эсеров, который произошел из-за отличного от большевиков отношения к Брестскому миру. Подробно о событиях 6 июля снят в 1968 году фильм с одноименным названием, где Любовь Спиридонову сыграла актриса Алла Демидова (“Sixth of july”, 1968)
После победы большевиков партия левых эверов была ликвидирована. Спиридонову арестовали в 1937 year, and 11 september 1941 года она была расстреляна в числе прочих политзаключенных. Стоит отметить, что во время своего заключения, она писала письма Ежову Н. AND. с предложением убить Гитлера на том основании, что имела большой террористический опыт. Но судьба ее решена была иначе.

6. Ариадна Тыркова-Вильямс

Тыркова-Вильямс Ариадна, революционерка из партии кадетов
Тыркова-Вильямс Ариадна

Ariadna Vladimirovna Tyrkova-Williams, historian, writer, biography author A. FROM. Pushkin. She was a member of the Cadet Party, subsequently categorically emphasized her anti-Bolshevik position. По способу действия, активности, sure, уступала Коллонтай, Крупской и другим большевичкам, тем не менее в рамках своей партии Ариадна Владимировна запомнилась как яркий оратор. Она выступала с критикой радикального реформирования страны, опасалась полного развала общественной структуры во имя сомнительных идеалов.

Тыркова происходила из древнего дворянского рода, воспитана была в духе либеральных идей. IN 1903 году 34-летнюю Ариадну Владимировну арестовали за попытку контрабанды 400 экземпляров журнала Петра Струве «Освобождение». Была приговорена к 2,5 годам тюремного заключения, но по болезни была освобождена под залог, после чего при первой возможности эмигрировала.
По возвращении на родину сотрудничала с «Нивой», «Русской мыслью» и «Вестником Европы». Ее перу принадлежат романы «Жизненный путь» и «Добыча», книгу «Анна Павловна Философова и её время», сборник очерков «Старая Турция и младотурки».
FROM 1951 года Тыркова проживала в США, здесь ею были написаны три книги воспоминаний: «На путях к свободе» (1952), «То, чего больше не будет» (1954), «Подъём и крушение» (1956). Скончалась в 1962 year of age 92 years old.

Знаменитые женщины-революционерки России

Chernyshevsky Nikolai Gavrilovich (1828-1889), Saratov

Чернышевский Н. Г.
Chernyshevsky N. D.
1. What is Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky famous for??

In domestic and world history, Chernyshevsky is known as the author of the novel “What to do?”. However, in addition to his literary contribution, he also found his vocation, and, possibly, first of all, in philosophy, literary criticism and journalism.
Chernyshevsky in the middle 19 in. – ideological inspirer of the revolutionary minds of Russia. Moreover, Nikolai Gavrilovich was one of the first in Russia, who insisted on a speedy decision “women's issue”. He actively pushed for women's freedoms alongside men.. In other words, Chernyshevsky – ideologue of domestic feminism.

2. Place and year of birth. Origin

Nikolay Chernyshevsky is born 24 July 1828 years in Saratov.
His father, Gabriel Ivanovich, came from serfs, but at the time of the birth of his son Nicholas he was already an archpriest of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the city of Saratov. Interesting, that the surname Chernyshevsky was given to the family of Gabriel Ivanovich by the name of the village of Chernyshev in the Chembarsky district (Penza), where he once lived as a serf.

2. Education
Чернышевский Николай

At first, his father was engaged in the education of Nikolai Gavrilovich. Aged 14 years old he was entrusted to a French governor, which the (have an opinion) had a significant impact on the youth's worldview.
As a child, Chernyshevsky differed from the rest of the children in that, what, as the saying goes, literally devoured books, falling into his hands (while having strong myopia), for which he received the original nickname – “Bibliophage”.

IN 1843 year Chernyshevsky entered the Saratov Theological Seminary. After studying there for three years, he entered the St. Petersburg University, choosing the Historical and Philological Department of the Faculty of Philosophy.
IN 1850 year Chernyshevsky received the degree of candidate (the last academic degree in authority after doctor and master) and departed for Saratov, where he was accepted as a teacher at a local gymnasium. At that time, already a revolutionary-minded young man and having his own audience on duty., Chernyshevsky then did not fail to take the opportunity to share with his wards radical ideas for that time..

3. Formation of a worldview

During his studies at the university, Chernyshevsky became interested in reading the works of ancient philosophers and thinkers of French and English materialism of the 17th-18th centuries., works of Hegel, Newton, Laplace, Feuerbach, which had a great influence on the formation of his political views.
Among domestic intellectuals, Chernyshevsky was close in spirit to Belinsky V. G., Herzen A. and Vvedensky I. AND. Reading serious books did not pass without a trace for him., soon Nikolai Gavrilovich took up the pen himself.

4. “Contemporary”. Journalism
Чернышевский Николай Григорьевич

For the first time, Chernyshevsky declared himself in small articles in "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" in 1853 year. A year later, he began to collaborate with a socio-political magazine “Contemporary”, and here he also acted as the head of the publication along with N.N. Nekrasov., and later Dobrolyubov N.

IN 1855 year 10 May, the defense of Chernyshevsky's dissertation "Aesthetic relations of art to reality". This event has become a landmark. The audience heeded his harsh criticism of the idealist aesthetics. However, the innovative approach to the topic was not appreciated by everyone.: Nikolai Gavrilovich did not receive his scientific degree right away, but only three years after his loud performance.

IN 1860 year Chernyshevsky writes a work “Anthropological principle in philosophy”, after the promulgation of which he was honored to become a leader in the camp of Russian materialist philosophy 19 in.

Beginning with 1858 of the year “Contemporary” under the leadership of Chernyshevsky took a course towards the revolutionary-democratic direction of social thought in Russia, what subsequently caused the conflict in the editorial office – the liberal part of it, the radical deviation was not to the liking. In May 1862 of the year “from above” it was ordered to stop work on the publishing of the magazine for a period of eight months, and already 7 July, his main ideological inspirer Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky was arrested.

5. Arrest. “What to do?”. Link
Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов

Chernyshevsky was accused of compiling and attempting to distribute a leaflet "Bows to the peasants of the lords from their well-wishers", the purpose of which was to instill revolutionary sentiments in society. Beginning with 1858 Nikolay Gavrilovich demonstrated an active stance on the agrarian reform being prepared by the government, being her opponent. Peasant reform, according to Chernyshevsky, did not at all meet the interests of the common people, but at the same time, its adoption would simply muffle the already incipient revolutionary sentiments in society.

FROM 1861 year Chernyshevsky is the main ideological guideline for the participants of the revolutionary circle “Land and Freedom”, at the same time, he himself was not directly related to this secret society and was not part of it. From the same year, secret surveillance was established for Chernyshevsky., as behind the "enemy of the Russian Empire number one".

After the arrest, Chernyshevsky was placed in solitary confinement at the Peter and Paul Fortress. For a year and a half there was an investigation into the Chernyshevsky case. All this time Nikolai Gavrilovich defended his innocence, once even went on a hunger strike, lasting nine days.
Meanwhile, Chernyshevsky, in new conditions for himself, continued to conduct intellectual work, leaving notes on sheets, of which there were subsequently about two hundred. Well, and a significant moment of this difficult period is the writing of a novel by Chernyshevsky “What to do?”, who saw the light in 1863 year, being printed in a magazine “Contemporary”.

At this time, Chernyshevsky was very popular in a progressive society.. His romance “What to do?”, it seemed, gave people, those wishing to change the existing order, guide to action. Details on the meaning and influence can be found in the memoirs E. N. Vodovozovoy.

In February 1864 year Chernyshevsky was announced the verdict, according to which he was sentenced to 14 years of hard labor followed by a life-long settlement in Siberia. In May of the same year on Mytninskaya Square (St. Petersburg) a civil execution was carried out over the revolutionary, meaning the deprivation of the convict of all rights of the state.
In early July, Chernyshevsky arrived in Irkutsk, where he was assigned for work at the Usolsk salt plant. He did not stay here long. Having changed several points of serving the sentence, in 1867 year Chernyshevsky was taken to the Akatuy prison.

During the period of hard labor, Chernyshevsky wrote two novels: “Old man” and “Prologue”. Both manuscripts were delivered from the place of detention to Chernyshevsky's confidant in St. Petersburg, but were not printed. Works of the disgraced writer and philosopher “went” among his supporters, however, they officially appeared in print in 1905 year.

6. Personal life
Ольга и Николай Чернышевские
Olga and Nikolay Chernyshevsky

Nikolai Gavrilovich was married to Olga Sokratovna Vasilyeva, whom I met in 1853 year when he was a teacher at the Saratov gymnasium. In marriage, they had three sons. To outsiders, the relationship between the spouses seemed very strange. Olga Sokratovna was a charming lady, gypsy blood, easily and willingly captivated men. By the way, could not resist her spell and Dobrolyubov. However, Nikolai Grigorievich believed, that a woman is free to decide what to do and with whom to be, despite the fact that he loved his wife passionately.

7. When Chernyshevsky died

IN 1871 year ended the term awarded to Chernyshevsky hard labor, after which he was escorted to Vilyuisk. He was allowed to return to the European part of Russia only in 1883 year. IN 1889 year, after five years of living in Astrakhan, Chernyshevsky obtained permission to settle in Saratov, where he arrived in June of the same year. However, he did not have a chance to live at home for long.. 11 october 1889 of the year Nikolai Gavrilovich fell ill with malaria and died a few days later.

Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов