Bolotov, Andrey Timofeevich (1738-1833), Dvoryaninovo

Болотов Андрей Тимофеевич

1. Who is Andrei Bolotov?

Bolotov, Andrey Timofeevich – universal man, because it has proven itself in many fields of activity. These include agronomy and pomology., landscape design and even literature. At the same time, Bolotov and his achievements are very few people know., which is a significant injustice, because. his services to compatriots are significant, and he brought considerable benefit to Russian society. In particular, the consumption of potatoes and tomatoes in Russia went exactly with the light hand of Andrei Timofeevich, the principles of arranging the Russian park zone also developed thanks to him, and extensive records, which Bolotov left behind, are still a source of information about life, life and customs of Russia 17-18 cc.

2. Year and place of birth, origin

Andrey Timofeevich was born 7 October 1738 years in the Tula estate Dvoryaninovo, belonging to the Bolotov family. The third (And last) child in the family, with his older sisters, the age difference was significant.

His father Timofey Petrovich, middle-class landowner, served in the Arkhangelsk regiment and had the rank of colonel. Because of the service, he often and for a long time was absent from home., however, whenever possible, he always found the opportunity to transport and equip his wife, Mavra Stepanovna (in Bakeev's virginity), daughters and little son Andrey near him. Accompanying the father of the family during the movement of his regiment to a new location, Andrew thus spent his childhood in the lands of Courland and St. Petersburg, occasionally returning to home.

Aged 14 years Bolotov lost his father, and two years later he lost his mother.

3. Education

Father helped Bolotov to take his first steps in education. Then the parent entrusted it to a foreigner (to the German), considering, that only one of its origins will be the key to the successful mastery of the son of the German language in addition to teaching mathematics. However, the human qualities of the German were as follows, that their study time was mostly wasted: unable to systematically feed material, the foreigner only tortured the child with demands in the classroom. Fear and horror in front of a quick-tempered and unrestrained teacher only exacerbated the situation..

Nevertheless, Andrei Timofeevich was a capable child, and knowledge came easily to him with the right approach. 9-At that time, his father gave him to the family of a Courland nobleman by the name of Netelgorst, who had two sons and who were trained in all the necessary disciplines by a certain Frenchman. And here is already a young Bolotov, what is called, felt the difference, when I got to lessons with a new teacher. In a short time, he caught up in the knowledge of the sons of Netelgorst. No matter how good it was to study in this family, but due to his father's duty, Andrei had to move. Later Bolotov studied for some time at the St. Petersburg boarding school..

4. Service

According to custom 18 centuries noble children began their military careers early. So, Bolotov is already in 10 years he was in the rank of captenarmus. TO 19 over the years he rose to the rank of second lieutenant, and in this rank in 1757 year during the Seven Years' War took part in the battle of Gross-Jägersdorf.

In the same 1756 year Bolotov was sent to serve in Konigsberg, and here knowledge of the German language came in handy (foreign Andrei Timofeevich learned in the future, communicating with the Germans). Noting this skill for the second lieutenant, the command appointed him as the clerk of the Konigsberg chamber, and later a translator of official papers in German. During his stay in Prussia, Bolotov received the rank of lieutenant.

Bolotov retired with the rank of captain, after which he settled in his family estate.

4. Agricultural activities

Leaving the service and settling in the estate, Bolotov plunged into the study of effective farming. He showed great interest in gardening., and soon his family estate was qualitatively transformed.

In parallel with these works, Bolotov actively collaborated with the Free Economic Society, covering, at the request of the latter, all questions on agriculture in popular language. Andrey Timofeevich's professionalism inspired confidence, and soon Bolotov was recommended to Empress Catherine II. She was just looking for a man, able to competently improve the economy in his three estates, located in Kiyasovskaya, in Bobrikovskaya and Bogoroditskaya volosts, and also take on the function of a manager. Bolotov willingly agreed to the proposal from the Empress, and was engaged in the task set by her for 23 years, for which he was awarded the rank of collegiate assessor.

5. Bolotov – promoter of potatoes and tomatoes

Yes, thanks to Andrei Timofeevich, potatoes and tomatoes have become, finally, popular in Russia. Potatoes appeared with us in the times of Peter the Great. Only Russian people did not trust this overseas product, I softened, once “it grows in the ground, where all odds are found ", then use it for your own evil. Especially, thought others, there is such a fruit, which looks like a head with eyes, does not matter, what to eat human souls.

Andrei Timofeevich, on the other hand, had a scientific mindset., and such speculations were alien to him. Little of, that he himself ate potatoes, Bolotov began to study the tubers for their effective planting and further storage.. In particular, his guess, that it is always desirable to plant the best samples, empirically confirmed. Bolotov also found out the reason “landscaping” potatoes – its tubers do not tolerate sunlight, and it is better to store them in a dark room.

Being on top of everything else and a subtle psychologist, Bolotov once decided to take the following: he put a guard on his potato plantation and from time to time withdrew it. See, that the owner is so concerned about the harvest, people came to the conclusion, that for an unusable vegetable such supervision would hardly have been. And then people decided, taking advantage of the absence of the guards, take potatoes for a sample. This is what Bolotov sought. Peasants “tried” her, and later they even put potatoes after bread in second place in importance .

Amazing, but Bolotov also came up with the idea of ​​making from potatoes “shavings”, today we know them as chips. Andrey Timofeevich also experimented with dry soups, which could be diluted with boiled water.

It was the same with tomatoes.. People were afraid to eat them, considering poisonous, and was grown more like an ornamental plant. Bolotov showed by his example, whatever he, neither his family was poisoned, using them. Moreover, he began experimenting with preserving tomatoes for the winter.

5. Bolotov – writer. Memoirs

Андрей Болотов за работой
Engraving by L.A. Seryakov from illustration from A.T. Bolotov's book. Signature under the painting: “Accurate image, that room and place, where was this book written in 1789 and 1790 year. "

Since 1776 by 1779 g. Bolotov publishes the agricultural weekly magazine Rural Resident. An economic for the benefit of rural residents an employee publication ".

IN 1780 year publisher Nikolay Novikov suggested to Andrey Timofeevich in the newspaper “Moskovskie vedomosti” be published on a specially designated sheet called “Economic store”. So, fruitful cooperation with Novikov lasted 10 years old. As a result, Bolotov wrote for the newspaper of order 4000 articles, or 40 volumes of the encyclopedia, drawn up upon completion of cooperation.

At the same time, Bolotov also wrote philosophical works: "Children's philosophy, or moralizing conversations between a lady and her children, composed for the advancement of the true benefit of young people ", "A Guide to True Human Happiness", “A Christian's Feelings at the Beginning and End of Every Day, relating to oneself and to God ".

Another area of ​​Bolotov's writing activity was his memoirs. His Life and Adventures of Andrei Bolotov, described by him for his descendants ", "Notes of Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov" are, first of all, practical. The author assumed, that the autobiography will be useful to his descendants, because. I sincerely regretted it myself, that he had practically no information left from previous generations of relatives.

Historical works: "Monument of the past times, or Brief historical notes about past incidents and rumors circulating among the people ", "Modern news of the first French war", "Descriptions of the last French war", "Collection of anecdotes about Prince Potemkin", "A Brief History of Poland".
Encyclopedia for children called "Soul Kunstkamera".
"Rustic mirror, or the People's Book, composed not only, to read it, but in order to comply with it "- in fact, a practical guide to the effective organization of labor in agriculture.

6. Bolotov – scientist

Andrey Timofeevich Bolotov was the first in Russia to lay the foundation for the classification of plants. The article is devoted to this work. 1771 of the Year "Botanical Notes on Grass Classes".

In the work "On the separation of fields" (1771) Bolotov scientifically substantiated the benefits of crop rotation. He also urged to pay attention to the peculiarities of the location when cultivating the land., on the appropriateness of timely fertilization.

Bolotov – the first scientist-pomologist in Russia. He described about 600 varieties of apple and pear, plus he bred several varieties of fruit crops himself.

Andrey Timofeevich was noted in medicine, writing notes "Brief and experience based remarks about electricity and the ability of electric machines to help from various diseases". In other words, Bolotov was one of the first to apply the experience of electrophoresis treatment (he built the electrostatic machine with his own hand). Besides, it is customary for us to consider, that keeping the patient's medical history – also developed by Bolotov, the emergence of which is associated with the, that Andrei Trofimovich himself was engaged in the treatment of all, who asked him for medical help. To everyone who applied – separate notebook.

7. Personal life, a family

Aged 26 years old (1764) Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov married a noblewoman Alexandra Mikhailovna Kaverina. Nine children were born in marriage, four of whom died as children.

8. last years of life

Болотов Андрей биграфия
A. T. Bolotov. Engraving by LA Seryakov

Leaving the management of the imperial estates, Andrey Timofeevich settled in his family estate Dvoryaninovo. Here everything was thought out by him to the smallest detail for the convenience of stay. for instance, the owner deliberately ordered to plant berry bushes next to the benches: and it's nice to sit and relax, and it is useful to eat a berry. There was a grotto on the territory of the estate, which the scientist equipped with a periscope, so that you can admire the local park.

In such a paradise place Bolotov lived the last years of his long and fruitful life.. He passed away two days before his 95th birthday in 1833 year.

Alas, after the death of the owner, the estate did not belong to the Bolotov family for a long time. At the beginning 20 in. the Spaso-Kazan Convent was organized on its territory, which in 1917 year, the Soviet government abolished, and the main manor house was burned down.
Restoration of the Bolotov estate, to convert it into a museum, engaged in 1988 year according to the drawings of Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov himself. Yes, he on top of everything else, was also an amateur artist.
P.S. Here you can see the estate of Bolotov A. T.

Болотов Андрей Тимофеевич (1738-1833), Дворяниново

Chernyshevsky Nikolai Gavrilovich (1828-1889), Saratov

Чернышевский Н. Г.
Chernyshevsky N. D.
1. What is Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky famous for??

In domestic and world history, Chernyshevsky is known as the author of the novel “What to do?”. However, in addition to his literary contribution, he also found his vocation, and, possibly, first of all, in philosophy, literary criticism and journalism.
Chernyshevsky in the middle 19 in. – ideological inspirer of the revolutionary minds of Russia. Moreover, Nikolai Gavrilovich was one of the first in Russia, who insisted on a speedy decision “women's issue”. He actively pushed for women's freedoms alongside men.. In other words, Chernyshevsky – ideologue of domestic feminism.

2. Place and year of birth. Origin

Nikolay Chernyshevsky is born 24 July 1828 years in Saratov.
His father, Gabriel Ivanovich, came from serfs, but at the time of the birth of his son Nicholas he was already an archpriest of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the city of Saratov. Interesting, that the surname Chernyshevsky was given to the family of Gabriel Ivanovich by the name of the village of Chernyshev in the Chembarsky district (Penza), where he once lived as a serf.

2. Education
Чернышевский Николай

At first, his father was engaged in the education of Nikolai Gavrilovich. Aged 14 years old he was entrusted to a French governor, which the (have an opinion) had a significant impact on the youth's worldview.
As a child, Chernyshevsky differed from the rest of the children in that, what, as the saying goes, literally devoured books, falling into his hands (while having strong myopia), for which he received the original nickname – “Bibliophage”.

IN 1843 year Chernyshevsky entered the Saratov Theological Seminary. After studying there for three years, he entered the St. Petersburg University, choosing the Historical and Philological Department of the Faculty of Philosophy.
IN 1850 year Chernyshevsky received the degree of candidate (the last academic degree in authority after doctor and master) and departed for Saratov, where he was accepted as a teacher at a local gymnasium. At that time, already a revolutionary-minded young man and having his own audience on duty., Chernyshevsky then did not fail to take the opportunity to share with his wards radical ideas for that time..

3. Formation of a worldview

During his studies at the university, Chernyshevsky became interested in reading the works of ancient philosophers and thinkers of French and English materialism of the 17th-18th centuries., works of Hegel, Newton, Laplace, Feuerbach, which had a great influence on the formation of his political views.
Among domestic intellectuals, Chernyshevsky was close in spirit to Belinsky V. G., Herzen A. and Vvedensky I. AND. Reading serious books did not pass without a trace for him., soon Nikolai Gavrilovich took up the pen himself.

4. “Contemporary”. Journalism
Чернышевский Николай Григорьевич

For the first time, Chernyshevsky declared himself in small articles in "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" in 1853 year. A year later, he began to collaborate with a socio-political magazine “Contemporary”, and here he also acted as the head of the publication along with N.N. Nekrasov., and later Dobrolyubov N.

IN 1855 year 10 May, the defense of Chernyshevsky's dissertation "Aesthetic relations of art to reality". This event has become a landmark. The audience heeded his harsh criticism of the idealist aesthetics. However, the innovative approach to the topic was not appreciated by everyone.: Nikolai Gavrilovich did not receive his scientific degree right away, but only three years after his loud performance.

IN 1860 year Chernyshevsky writes a work “Anthropological principle in philosophy”, after the promulgation of which he was honored to become a leader in the camp of Russian materialist philosophy 19 in.

Beginning with 1858 of the year “Contemporary” under the leadership of Chernyshevsky took a course towards the revolutionary-democratic direction of social thought in Russia, what subsequently caused the conflict in the editorial office – the liberal part of it, the radical deviation was not to the liking. In May 1862 of the year “from above” it was ordered to stop work on the publishing of the magazine for a period of eight months, and already 7 July, his main ideological inspirer Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky was arrested.

5. Arrest. “What to do?”. Link
Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов

Chernyshevsky was accused of compiling and attempting to distribute a leaflet "Bows to the peasants of the lords from their well-wishers", the purpose of which was to instill revolutionary sentiments in society. Beginning with 1858 Nikolay Gavrilovich demonstrated an active stance on the agrarian reform being prepared by the government, being her opponent. Peasant reform, according to Chernyshevsky, did not at all meet the interests of the common people, but at the same time, its adoption would simply muffle the already incipient revolutionary sentiments in society.

FROM 1861 year Chernyshevsky is the main ideological guideline for the participants of the revolutionary circle “Land and Freedom”, at the same time, he himself was not directly related to this secret society and was not part of it. From the same year, secret surveillance was established for Chernyshevsky., as behind the "enemy of the Russian Empire number one".

After the arrest, Chernyshevsky was placed in solitary confinement at the Peter and Paul Fortress. For a year and a half there was an investigation into the Chernyshevsky case. All this time Nikolai Gavrilovich defended his innocence, once even went on a hunger strike, lasting nine days.
Meanwhile, Chernyshevsky, in new conditions for himself, continued to conduct intellectual work, leaving notes on sheets, of which there were subsequently about two hundred. Well, and a significant moment of this difficult period is the writing of a novel by Chernyshevsky “What to do?”, who saw the light in 1863 year, being printed in a magazine “Contemporary”.

At this time, Chernyshevsky was very popular in a progressive society.. His romance “What to do?”, it seemed, gave people, those wishing to change the existing order, guide to action. Details on the meaning and influence can be found in the memoirs E. N. Vodovozovoy.

In February 1864 year Chernyshevsky was announced the verdict, according to which he was sentenced to 14 years of hard labor followed by a life-long settlement in Siberia. In May of the same year on Mytninskaya Square (St. Petersburg) a civil execution was carried out over the revolutionary, meaning the deprivation of the convict of all rights of the state.
In early July, Chernyshevsky arrived in Irkutsk, where he was assigned for work at the Usolsk salt plant. He did not stay here long. Having changed several points of serving the sentence, in 1867 year Chernyshevsky was taken to the Akatuy prison.

During the period of hard labor, Chernyshevsky wrote two novels: “Old man” and “Prologue”. Both manuscripts were delivered from the place of detention to Chernyshevsky's confidant in St. Petersburg, but were not printed. Works of the disgraced writer and philosopher “went” among his supporters, however, they officially appeared in print in 1905 year.

6. Personal life
Ольга и Николай Чернышевские
Olga and Nikolay Chernyshevsky

Nikolai Gavrilovich was married to Olga Sokratovna Vasilyeva, whom I met in 1853 year when he was a teacher at the Saratov gymnasium. In marriage, they had three sons. To outsiders, the relationship between the spouses seemed very strange. Olga Sokratovna was a charming lady, gypsy blood, easily and willingly captivated men. By the way, could not resist her spell and Dobrolyubov. However, Nikolai Grigorievich believed, that a woman is free to decide what to do and with whom to be, despite the fact that he loved his wife passionately.

7. When Chernyshevsky died

IN 1871 year ended the term awarded to Chernyshevsky hard labor, after which he was escorted to Vilyuisk. He was allowed to return to the European part of Russia only in 1883 year. IN 1889 year, after five years of living in Astrakhan, Chernyshevsky obtained permission to settle in Saratov, where he arrived in June of the same year. However, he did not have a chance to live at home for long.. 11 october 1889 of the year Nikolai Gavrilovich fell ill with malaria and died a few days later.

Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов

Zamyatin Eugene (1884-1937), Lebedyan-Paris

Замятин Евгений
1. Place and year of birth. Origin

Zamyatin Eugene was born 1 February 1884 years in the town of Lebedyan, Tambov province ("In the most chernozemy interior of Russia", now Lipetsk region) in the family of the Orthodox priest Ivan Dmitrievich Zamyatin.
Mother Eugene, Maria Alexandrovna, nee Platonova, came from a family of priest A. AND. Platonov was a very educated woman by those standards. Capable of music, she was known as a great pianist, thanks to which Eugene ("Grew up under the piano") also played the piano well and was listed as a great connoisseur of classical music.
In addition to Eugene, the Zamyatin family had Alexander’s younger sister, warm relations between them lasted a lifetime.

Замятин с семьей, сестра
With a family, 1904 year
2. Education

FROM 1893 by 1896 gg. Zamyatin studied at the Lebedyan gymnasium. Then he moved to the Voronezh gymnasium, education which ended in 1902 year and was marked by a gold medal for academic success (later Zamyatin pledged her to the Petersburg pawnshop for 25 rubles, but never buy back).

Лебедянь, нач. 20 в.
Lebedyan, start. 20 in.

According to the memoirs of the writer himself, the easiest way for him to learn, and, opposite, the most difficult thing was with math. This fact became decisive for the young Evgeni Zamyatin when choosing the further direction in education. He entered (“out of obstinacy”) to the shipbuilding faculty of the Petersburg Polytechnic, where is the math, respectively, was the dominant discipline.

Zamyatin's student years fell on revolutionary events in Russia. Participation in rallies and demonstrations, singing the Marseillaise, joining the ranks of the RSDLP – all this was in the life of a future writer. Fall 1905 years he is an active Bolshevik agitator among the working masses, and met the first Russian revolution with enthusiasm: “The revolution shook me so well. Felt, that there is something strong, a huge – like a tornado, raising his head to the sky, – what is worth living for. But it's almost happiness!” true, after years, when emotions subside and the time comes to rethink what happened, Zamyatin will be more restrained in speaking out about the radical events of those years.

IN 1908 Zamyatin graduates from the institute, where he gets the position of marine engineer, and remains at the department of ship architecture as a teacher. And all this while, that in St. Petersburg his finding was illegal due to the arrest as a rebel and further exile to his native Lebedyan, in which he did not want to stay.

3. Literary debut / major works

In the same 1908 Zamyatin writes his first story “One”, which was published in the magazine “Education”. Then the debut of the young writer did not attract any special attention to himself., however, it will be remembered and appreciated after a while.

Замятин Евгений. худ. Кустодиев Б.
Zamyatin Eugene. yourself. Kustodiev B.

IN 1911 Zamyatin was arrested again and exiled to Lakhta. This link lasted for two years and to no avail. Loneliness prompted Zamyatin to take up pen and paper, result – a story “County”, subsequently opened the door to the world of Russian literature.

On the eve of World War I (1914 g.) Zamyatin writes “On the balls” – a satirical tale of dubious combat capability of the tsarist army. The authorities did not like the work, for which the author was brought to trial, and subsequently sent to Kem. Critics have found a story worthy of attention.

IN 1916 Yesterday's exile Zamyatin, being, first of all, experienced engineer, was sent to England to participate in the construction of Russian icebreakers at Newcastle shipyards, Glasgow and Sunderland; he also visited London. The time of a business trip in the literary plan was also not in vain. During this period, the novels The Islanders were written. (1917) and the “Man Catcher” (published in 1921). Here the beginning of the story was laid “North” (completed and published in 1922 year). Zamyatin returned to Russia just before the October Revolution

The next ten years in creative terms were very prosperous for Zamyatin. He sat on the presidium of the All-Russian Union of Writers, worked in “World literature”, he was favored by M. Bitter. In society, Zamyatin was perceived as “close companion”, although he criticized the Bolsheviks for politics during the Civil War, and in March 1919 years was even arrested for participating in the unrest of workers at the Petrograd factories.

Замятин Евгений, биография

IN 1920 Yevgeny Zamyatin completed writing the novel “we”, laid the foundation for such a genre as dystopia (Orwell, Huxley – followers of Zamyatin). This novel, one side, refers to the topic of the Bolsheviks and their policies, with another, explores technological progress (as a result of impressions from “a mechanized” Of England), its negative impact on human life.

Novel “we” in Russian first saw the light in New York in 1952 year. In Russia, readers could read it only in 1988 year in the magazine “Banner”.

IN 1922 year E. Zamyatin writes a book “Herbert Wells”, in which shares thoughts, how about the personality of a science fiction, and the role of science fiction in literature.

After dystopia, Zamyatin did not write anything more significant, harassed, and, so as not to tempt fate,in 1931 g. wrote to I in writing. Stalin with a request to allow him to emigrate and on occasion “come back, as soon as it becomes possible for us to serve in the literature great ideas without serving small people”.

In Paris, the Russian writer was not left idle. He writes articles on the state of Russian literature, and also preparing the script for the play M. Gorky “At the bottom” – Zamyatin script was a great success with the public.

4. Personal life

IN 1906 Zamyatin meets Lyudmila Nikolaevna Usova, medical student. Eventually, young people got married, and all the misfortunes of life endured together.

Evgeny Zamyatin died in 1937 year of age 53 years from a heart attack. Lyudmila Nikolaevna survived it for several decades, managing to preserve the creative heritage of his spouse.

Евгений Замятин с супругой
Evgeny Zamyatin with his wife
Замятин Евгений (1884-1937), Лебедянь-Париж

Mordovtsev Daniil Lukich (1830-1905), Danilovka-Kislovodsk

Мордовцев Д.Л.
1. Origin

Daniil Lukich Mordovtsev was born 7(19) December 1830 years in the Danilovka settlement of the region Don troops in the family, belonging to the old Cossack family. Writer's father “there was a crest of the old school, beginner, lover of ancient writing and owner of an extensive old library” died quite early. Mother was left alone with five children. However, she did not live long.
2. Education

Daniil Lukich received his first education in a four-year district school in the village of Ust-Medveditskaya, then continued his studies at the Saratov provincial gymnasium, which I graduated with excellent marks.

Initially, Mordovtsev entered the Faculty of History and Philology of Kazan University (1850), but a year later, yielding to the persuasion of the Slavic scholar Sreznevsky And. AND., transferred to the verbal department of St. Petersburg University.

IN 1854 year Mordovtsev finishes a course at the university and receives a candidate, after which he returns to Saratov.

3. Kostomarov

In Saratov, Mordovtsev is moving closer to Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov, who were there in exile for their participation in the Cyril and Methodius Society and advocated the ideas of Christian socialism. The historian had a great influence on Daniil Lukich. And to show, in what way was this influence, let's quote Kostomarov: “In addition to our will, the federal system began to appear to us, as the happiest course of social life of the Slavic nations ... In all parts of the federation, the same basic laws and rights were assumed, equality of weight, measures, coins, no customs and free trade, general abolition of serfdom and slavery in whatever form, one central authority, manager of relations of the whole union, army and navy, but the complete autonomy of each part in relation to internal institutions, internal management, legal proceedings and public education”.

Костомаров Н. И.
Kostomarov N.. AND.

Together, Mordovians and Kostomarov promoted the idea of ​​a detailed study of the life of the people, his way of life and way, individual features of the cultural and historical side of individual regions throughout Russia. It was assumed that this regional identity was not easy to define, but also to support its further development. The result of these actions of two enthusiastic people was the development of local history in the field., revitalization of cultural life in provincial cities.

4. Creation

The first literary work of Mordovtsev was a poem “Cossacks and the sea”. It was published in 1859 year in the "Little Russian literary collection", published by him together with Kostomarov. Then Mordovtsev writes the historical story "Medveditsky Burlak", historical monograph "The Pretender Bogomolov".

In the 1860s and 70s, extensive historical studies of Mordovtsev Daniil Lukich were published, dedicated to popular movements: "Pugachevschina" (1866), «Self-propelled and humble wolf» (1867), "Haidamatchina" (1870), "Political movements of the Russian people" (1871), "Russian historical women of pre-Petrine Rus" (1874), "Russian women of modern times" (1874), "Historical propylaea" (1889), "On the Eve of Freedom" (1889).

Then Mordovtsev wrote an extensive work "The Decade of the Russian Zemstvo". Daniil Lukich will later say about his enormous work: “We believe, that with this humble deed we nevertheless laid the first stone under the great edifice of the future history of the Russian people ".

Мордовцев Даниил Лукич (1830-1905), Даниловка-Кисловодск

Mordovtsev also wrote a number of major articles: "Modern economic situation of the Volga region", "Are we really rich?», "Printing in the province", "Iron business in Russia and in the West", "Activities of the zemstvo and its literature".

Mordovtsev was one of the first to draw attention to the legitimacy of the existence of the religion of the Old Believers. IN 1876 the first historical work of fiction comes out – novel “Idealists and realists”. This was followed by: “Great schism” (1878), “False Dmitry” (1879), “Twelfth year” (1880), “Tsar and hetman” (1880), “Mamaevo massacre” (1881), “Mr. Veliky Novgorod” (1882), “Quiver” (1882), “Adventurers” (1886), “For whose sins?” (1891), “Iron and blood”(1896), “State carpenter”(1899).

5. Personal life
Анна Никаноровна Пасхалова-Мордовцева.
Anna Nikanorovna Paskhalova-Mordovtseva.

Back in 1854 after graduating from university in Saratov, Mordovtsev married Anna Nikanorovna Paskhalova. For a woman, this was the second marriage., she already had children, however, this did not interfere with their union.

IN 1885 g. wife passed away, after that the writer moved to Rostov-on-Don to his brother. He travels a lot. Once, on a regular trip, Mordovtsev caught a serious cold and fell ill. it, one might say, became the starting point of his last days. Lung inflammation never responded to treatment, and 10 (23) June 1905 the writer died, being at that moment in Kislovodsk.

Mordovtsev was buried beside his parents at the Novosyolovsky cemetery of Rostov-on-Don. Today, the monument from his grave is at the Bratsk cemetery of Rostov-on-Don, the writer's grave itself was destroyed.

Мордовцев Даниил Лукич (1830-1905), Даниловка-Кисловодск

Kheraskov Mikhail Matveevich (1733-1807), Pereyaslavl-Moscow

Херасков М. М.
Kheraskov M. M.
1. Year and place of birth. Origin

Mikhail Kheraskov was born 5 November 1733 years in g. Pereyaslavl, where is his father (Matthew Jerescu, noble Moldovan) received an estate after the Prut campaign in 1711 year. Mother came from the Drutsky-Sokolinsky family.

Overall, Mikhail Matveyevich belonged to the highest circle of the aristocracy. After the death of the head of the family, the mother of the future writer remarried Prince Trubetskoy N. YU., and the Kheraskovs moved to Izium, where he was serving at that time Nikita Yurievich. After the appointment of his stepfather to a new position in St. Petersburg, Kheraskov and his family moved to the capital.

2. Education

To 10 years Mikhail studied at home. Arithmetic, geometry, foreign languages, geography – the main set of subjects for primary education at the time. IN 1743 year, his stepfather enrolls him in the Land Gentry Cadet Corps, in which the main subjects, serious attention was paid to the cultural life of adolescents. So, in the institution, students organized performances and gathered in literary circles.

3. Career

IN 1751 year Mikhail Kheraskov was released from the cadet corps to the Ingermanland regiment with the rank of second lieutenant, and, having been an officer for four years, moved to the civil service. IN 1756 year at Moscow University, he received the position of assessor (in other words, supervised students), and also headed the student library and became the head of the university theater.

Moreover, in 1757 year under the tutelage of Kheraskov, the printing house of Moscow University was transferred, and later the Moscow Synodal Printing House. At the university printing house, he organized a number of print publications ("Useful entertainment", "Free hours", "Innocent exercise", "Good intention"), becoming a center of gravity for writing student youth.

In addition to printing and theater, Mikhail Matveyevich was responsible for the mineralogical cabinet, supervised Russian actors in Moscow and was responsible for contracts with Italian singers.

IN 1761 year Kheraskov was appointed acting director of the university. An important achievement in this position was the organization in 1768 year of lectures in Russian. This was not easy to achieve, because. European professors forced Moscow University to teach exclusively in Latin.

Kheraskov, being in serious opposition with a number of influential persons, nevertheless, he addressed the language issue directly to Catherine II. The situation unfolded during the Empress's journey along the Volga in 1767 year, in which Mikhail Matveyevich also took part in the composition of her retinue. After a while, the issue was resolved in favor of using the Russian language.

In May 1770 of the year (37 years old) Kheraskov was appointed Vice President of the Berg Collegium (organization, who was in charge of the mining industry in Russia) in the rank of state councilor. Four years later, Mikhail Matveyevich resigned. There is an assumption, that the resignation was not the initiative of Kheraskov himself, but as if he fell into disgrace because of his serious hobby for Freemasonry, which he joined in 1773 year, because. resignation was not accompanied in his case by the due pension.

After his resignation, Mikhail Kheraskov participated in the publishing of the first philosophical journal in Russia “Morning light” under the direction of N. Novikova. With Novikov, Kheraskov will continue close cooperation in 1778 year after restoration to disgrace. Becoming the curator of Moscow University, he will order to transfer the printing house to Novikov for a period of 10 years old, as a result of which the latter will begin to actively develop its publishing activities, what, in its turn, will have a positive effect on increasing the readability of the Russian population.

IN 1783 year Kheraskov became a member of the Russian Academy, and in 1786 year was awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 2nd degree.

Херасков Михаил Матвеевич (1733-1807), Переяславль-Москва
Kheraskov M. M. in mature years.

However, despite the negative past, masonic-related, Kheraskov left no lodge, for which later I got into the situation again, which threatened him with new serious troubles. Accused of conducting secret Masonic rituals on his estate, Mikhail Matveyevich only thanks to the intercession of influential acquaintances before Catherine was able to hold on to the post of curator of the university. However, after his arrest in 1792 year N. Novikova Kheraskov's position was shaken, and he was forbidden to do university business. His position will change only with the arrival of Paul I.

In November 1802 already under Alexander I, Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov was dismissed from service with a pension "at the request and for old age". At an advanced age, the writer received the rank of real privy councilor.

4. Literary activity

Heraskov made his debut in literature in 1758 a play “Venetian nun”, and in 1761 year staged a comedy in verse Atheist and wrote an ode, dedicated to E. Р. Dashkova.

In January 1762 Mikhail Matveyevich wrote an ode to the accession to the throne of Peter III, in July - on the ascent of Catherine II. Subsequently, Kheraskov annually dedicated a new poem to the Empress, he also wrote poems for her coronation 1763 year.

IN 1778 year Kheraskov completed an epic poem “Rossiada”. The author worked on this voluminous work for eight years.. The poem was presented to the Empress and pleased her. Kheraskov thus freed himself from disgrace, received a decent cash prize and was appointed curator of Moscow University.

Pavel Kheraskov, who replaced Catherine, dedicated the poem “Tsar, or saved Novgorod ". He also welcomed Alexander I to the throne with majestic odes.

Died Kheraskov 27 september (9 October) 1807 in Moscow. In recent years, he continued to write, collaborated with magazines "Vestnik Evropy", "Patriot" and "Friend of Enlightenment".

5. Personal life

IN 1760 year (27 years old) Kheraskov married Elizaveta Vasilyevna Neronova. The woman also wrote poetry and fully shared her husband's Masonic views.. Their house eventually became a recognized center of literary Moscow.

The couple did not have children, but they took Anna Karamysheva for education, whose memoirs were found in papers AND. E. Velikopolsky in the village of Chukavin, Staritsky district of Tver province, his daughter N. AND. Chaplina. In addition to describing the life of a noble family, Karamysheva gives some information about M. M. Heraskove.

Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (1745-1792), Moscow, Saint Petersburg

Фонвизин Денис Иваанович
Fonvizin D. AND.
1. Date and place of birth. Origin

Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin was born in Moscow 3 april (Art. Art) 1745 years in the family, whose paternal lineage descended from the Livonian Baron Berndt-Voldemar von Wissin, captured under Ivan the Terrible and remained in Moscow. Over time, the overseas surname acquired a more Russian sound..

Head of the Fonvizin family, Andrey Ivanovich, served in the Revision Board, distinguished by decency and erudition. The writer's mother came from the Dmitriev-Mamonov family. Together with Denis Ivanovich, eight children were born in the family.
2. Education

From the age of four Denis Ivanovich began to teach reading and writing and foreign languages. Aged 10 his years together with his brother Pavel (future senator) enrolled in a gymnasium at Moscow University. Here, both Fonvizin brothers showed their excellent mental abilities.. And after four years (in 1759 year) Denis Ivanovich became a student of the Faculty of Philosophy. In the gymnasium period, the future writer was in the troupe of the amateur theater M.Kheraskov., a little later he played on the professional stage at the Public Theater.

In 1760, Denis Ivanovich and his brother arrived in St. Petersburg, here he saw a theatrical performance for the first time – staging of the play "Heinrich and Pernill" by a Danish writer, the founder of the Danish drama Ludwig Holberg.

3. Literary activity

IN 1760 year Fonvizin made his debut with the translation of the moralizing story "Just Jupiter" in the magazine “Useful Fun”, published under the direction of M. Heraskova. Next, the young man received an offer from the bookseller Vever to translate from German a book of fables by the Danish writer Golberg, which he did. Fonvizin's work was published in 1761 year.
IN 1762 Denis Ivanovich is still translating: cooperates with her teacher, prof. Reichel, and makes translations of five articles for his popular science journal "Collected Works". Fonvizin is engaged in translation “Metamorphosis” Ovid, translated into Russian 1 a volume of the extensive political and moralizing novel by the French writer Terrason "Heroic Virtue and the Life of Seth, king of Egypt " (1762 g., subsequent 3 volumes were printed before 1768 g.). He also translated Voltaire's tragedy "Alzira" in verse. And in 1769 year – Gresse's story "Sydney and Scilly or Benefits and Gratitude", known here more as "Corion".
Фонвизин Денис Иванович (1745-1792), Москва-Санкт-Петербург

However, Fonvizin was involved not only in translations during this period.. Researchers of the writer's creativity suggest, that in the 1760s he wrote a satirical play, which is usually called the "early" Minor "". It was published only in 1933 year, it guesses the prototypes of the heroes of the well-known "Minor".

Fonvizin's first debut work was an ode “Message to my servants Shumilov, Vanka and Petrushka”. Further, in 1764 year he wrote the play-comedy "Corion", and in the period 1766-1769 gg. a comedy was written “Brigadier” (published in 1786 g), its appearance laid the foundation for such a genre in our literature, like a comedy of manners (before that, writers addressed, basically, to the genre of comedy of characters).

Revealed comedy Fonvizin was a resounding success. Suffice it to say, that the author “Brigadier” was invited to Peterhof for reading to the Empress herself. Visits to the court continued, and soon Fonvizin had a chance to meet the tutor of Paul I Petrovich, as well as concurrently head of Russian foreign policy under Catherine II (first half of her reign) – N. AND. Panin.

the end 1782 - begining 1783 gg. – time of creation "Reasoning about the indispensable state laws", considered one of the best publicistic works. In fact, it was intended for Paul I Petrovich, the future emperor of Russia. IN “Reasoning” Fonvizin talks about “limits of moderation” serfdom in order to avoid a new Pugachevism.

IN 1883 the comedy by Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin was published “Undergrowth”. Like “Brigadier” in my time, “Undergrowth” brought fame to the author.

4. Public service
Фонвизин Д. И.

IN 1762 Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin filed a letter of resignation from service from the Life Guards Semyonovsky Regiment, where did his parents register him, according to the then tradition. He left the university and entered the College of Foreign Affairs, where he served as a translator. Fonvizin's literary activities did not go unnoticed by the influential environment, and already in 1763 year he was appointed to be under the cabinet minister and. P. Elagine (Director of the Imperial Theaters of Russia with 1766 by 1779, close to Catherine II, founder of primitive Slavophilism).
5. Panin Nikita Ivanovich

Initially converging on interests with N. AND. Panin, Fonvizin in 1769 year passed to his service, first becoming its secretary, and then one of the closest confidants to him. Communication with people from a political environment, gave Fonvizin knowledge of behind-the-scenes games, diplomacy, intrigue.

The result of the interaction of the writer with Panin was “Discourse about the completely exterminated form of government in Russia and from that about the fragile state as an empire, and the sovereigns themselves ", compiled by Fonvizin under the leadership of Panin, shortly before his death. “Reasoning” has a sharply negative assessment of the activities of Catherine II, requires constitutional changes, otherwise it portends a coup.

6. Personal life. Abroad. Death

In September 1774 of the year, aged 29 years old, Denis Ivanovich fonvizin got married. Ekaterina Khlopova became the chosen one, widow, daughter of a wealthy merchant Rogovikov. Marriage greatly improved a literary man's material.

Three years later (1777) the couple of Fonvizins went abroad in order to improve the shaky health of their wife. Notable letters Fonvizin to relatives and friends from Europe, in which he describes the socio-social situation of European states.

Fonvizin died in December 1792 years of age 48 years after a long illness: after the second apoplectic stroke, the man almost completely lost mobility, but thanks to the efforts of his wife he continued to work. The writer was buried in the Lazarevskoye cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Фонвизин Денис Иванович (1745-1792), Москва-Санкт-Петербург

Ostapenko Grigory Stepanovich (1922-2008). Stamps-Voronezh

Остапенко Григорий Степанович

Ostapenko Grigory Stepanovich – профессор, доктор технических наук, академик Российской академии естественных наук, Член Союза военных писателей «Воинское содружество», poet. Написал более 300 научных работ в области информатизации, включая четыре монографии и один учебник для высших учебных заведений, разработал 30 изобретений.

Выпустил 12 поэтических сборников: «Годы грозовые», «Города», «Дороги и жизнь земная», «зеленым летом», «Лирика», «Месяцы», «Моя Россия», «Родина», «Осень золотая», «Отечество». «Слава великой Победе», «Цвета сезонов», а также брошюр «Беседа в парке», «Малая родина Каменка», «Маршал Победы», «Раздумье о родине»

Остапенко Г. С.
Ostapenko G.. в центре

Из воспоминаний о детстве:
– Братья с малых лет брали меня с собой в поле на покос сена, на уборку хлебов и другие работы. Благодаря этому из детства у меня осталось много впечатлений о Доне, пугливых перепелах в густой и высокой траве и других красотах придонского края. Но особой песней по сей день звучит трель соловьев до зари, когда так буйно и одурманивающе сладко цвели сады – об этом можно написать не один рассказ…

О войне:
– Солдату очень сложно выстроить последовательно события войны, в памяти все не в хронологическом порядке, а в лично пережитом. Эпизоды, которые ты видел своими глазами, в которых принимал участие, сливаются с крупными операциями воедино… – у каждого война, получается, своя.

Остапенко Г. С.

– В первые же дни войны мы со старшим братом вернулись в Марки. Я отправился в Евдаковский райвоенкомат с заявлением о добровольном призыве в армию. Там было столько народу! И почти все со значками ГТО – «готов к труду и обороне».

Остапенко Г. С.

– Я был направлен в авиационный полк, которым командовала известная летчица Вера Ломако. От нас требовалось обеспечить радиосвязью самолеты ПО-2. С помощью имеющихся в нашем расположении радиостанций РБС трудно установить связь на земле, особенно в окопах, поскольку для их метровых волн деревья и кусты создавали непреодолимые радиотени. А связь «воздух-земля», как нам казалось, решала эту проблему.

– В составе 32 полка связи, обслуживающего штаб 2-го Белорусского фронта под командованием К.К. Рокоссовского, мы продвигались в направлении Эльбы. AND 8 мая в 11 утра радист, знавший английский язык, сообщил нам, что все радиостанции союзников передают сообщения о безоговорочной капитуляции Германии. Но наша главная радиостанция не подтверждала эту информацию в течение всего дня. And only at two o'clock in the morning 9 May Moscow said: "War is the end!»The happiest and most unique moments!

Остапенко Г. С.
Ostapenko G.. FROM.

Ostapenko G.. FROM.

Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930), Baghdati-Moscow

Владимир Маяковский
1. Vladimir Mayakovsky. Year and place of birth of the poet

Vladimir Mayakovsky was born 19 July 1893 years in Georgia (at that time was part of the Russian Empire), in the village of Baghdati. His mother, nee Alexandra Alekseevna Pavlenko, originally from Kuban. Father, Vladimir Konstantinovich, from the Cossacks, served as a forester in the Erivan province. In addition to Vladimir, the family had two daughters, Lyudmila and Olga. Two boys in the Mayakovsky family died in childhood.
Владимир Маяковский с семьей
Vladimir Mayakovsky with his family

IN 1906 the father of the family died suddenly, moreover, from the banal prick of a finger with an ordinary needle and the subsequent blood poisoning. This made an indelible impression on Vladimir, all his life he will avoid using needles and pins.
2. Education and revolution

The first educational institution of Mayakovsky was a gymnasium in Kutaisi, where he studied with 1902 of the year. Living among Georgians, he knew Georgian well from childhood, and later even called himself “Georgian”.
When in 1905 the year the revolution reached the Caucasus, 12-summer Mayakovsky took an active part in rallies and demonstrations, supporting revolutionary ideas. IN 1906 year after the death of her father, Alexandra Alekseevna moved with her children to Moscow. For two years Vladimir attended the 5th classical gymnasium. IN 1908 he was expelled from the 5th grade for lack of funds to pay for tuition.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

While studying at the gymnasium, Mayakovsky first wrote “incredibly revolutionary” poem, which was published in an underground school magazine. Revolutionary ideas filled him: he worked in an underground printing house, joined the Bolshevik Party. Young Mayakovsky was arrested twice, but every time he got away with it. However, third time out of luck: he spent in Butyrka prison 11 months. There was plenty of time, and Vladimir began to write poetry and read books there.
You can say, the conclusion with the accompanying self-education and reflections brought Mayakovsky to a new level. He wanted to radically change the aesthetics of classical art for a new one. Inspired by, Mayakovsky decided to become an artist while still in prison. Freed, he began to prepare for admission to the Moscow School of Painting, sculpture and architecture. IN 1911 year he became a student.
3. The path to popularity. Poetry and drama

While studying at the painting school, sculpture and architecture Mayakovsky met D. Burliuk, IN. Khlebnikov and A.. Kruchenykh and joined the Cubo-Futurists. He starts writing poetry again, and the very first poem by Mayakovsky “Night” (1912) was published in the collection of futurists “A slap in the face to public taste”.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
1912 year. Moscow. Group of futurists. Sit in. IN. Khlebnikov, D. L. Kuzmin, FROM. D. Dolinsky. They stand N. D. Burlyuk, D. D. Burlyuk, IN. IN. Mayakovsky

IN 1912 year 30 November Vladimir Mayakovsky made his first public appearance in an artistic cafe “homeless dog”. Together with the futurists, the young poet promoted a new art, for which he was expelled from the school. IN 1913 the futurists went on a tour of Russian cities, arranging an exhibition of futuristic paintings in each, reading poetry and lectures.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

IN 1913 Mayakovsky turned to drama. He wrote a tragedy “Vladimir Mayakovsky”, he staged it and himself played the main role in it. Next, the poet decided to master cinema and, as a result, wrote several scripts, and also starred in the film "Drama at the Futurist Cabaret # 13".
IN 1918 The premiere of Mayakovsky's play "Mystery-Buff" under the direction of V. Meyerhold.
IN 1928-1929 gg. Mayakovsky wrote satirical plays “Bedbug” and “Bathroom”. They were staged at the Meyerhold Theater. The poet himself took an active part in the preparation of the performances, acting as a second director.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Rehearsal of the production of "Bath" based on the play by Vladimir Mayakovsky in the State Theater and Theater
(1930 year) . Vsevolod Meyerhold shows the mise-en-scene.

“Bathroom” was staged only a few times, after which she was banned until 1953 of the year. Both plays were perceived as satire on the Soviet system and bureaucracy.. The government did not disregard attacks “the main Soviet poet”, and already in 1930 g. denied him travel abroad.

The official criticism suddenly found, that Mayakovsky's satire is more, what is not appropriate, because. a number of phenomena, ridiculed by the poet in his plays, these are already relics of the past, eg, bureaucracy and bureaucratic lawlessness. Moreover, opinions were expressed, which hurt the poet, that he is just “companion”, but not, really, “proletarian writer”.
IN 1930 Mayakovsky decided to summarize the results of his 20-year creative activity and prepared an exhibition. He hand-picked newspaper articles, drawings, decorated the premises, hung posters. However, despite the large number of people wishing to attend the event, there were no representatives of literary organizations among the visitors. The official side also ignored the fact of this peculiar anniversary.. Poetess Olga Berggolts later recalled:

“I will never forget, as in the House of Press at the exhibition of Vladimir Vladimirovich "Twenty years of work", which for some reason was almost boycotted by the "big" writers, we, several Smenovites, literally for days were on duty near the stands, physically suffering from, with what a sad and stern face walked through the empty halls of a large, A tall man, hands behind my back, walked up and down, as if waiting for someone very dear and more and more convinced, that this dear person will not come”.

Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Exhibition 20 years of work
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

By 1930, the poet's position on all fronts can be confidently called a crisis.
4. “Left front”

Also in 1922 Mayakovsky became the head of the literary and artistic association “Left Front Arts”. It included such writers and artists, as: NN. Aseev, V.V.. Kamensky, S.I.. Kirsanov, A.E.. Twisted, B.L. Parsnip, A.M. Rodchenko, V.F. Stepanova, V.E.. Tatlin et al.

Like futurism “LEF members” denied traditional principles in art, and advocated the creation of new forms of it. Several important points in the position “LEF”: principle “life-building”, theory “social order” and highlighting “literary fact”, ie. fantasy and fiction when creating new art must be forgotten.

By the end of the 20s “LEF” mired in a crisis due to over-regulation, participants are at an impasse in their construction of a new art. IN 1928 Mayakovsky left the association, but in may 1929 tried to organize a group, similar “LEFu”, calling it “Revolutionary front of the arts” (REF). However, the work in the union did not go well., and soon disintegrated, and Mayakovsky joined the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers.
5. Mayakovsky and Rodchenko the first Soviet advertisers

IN 1919 a number of artists and poets have begun work on a series of propaganda posters “ROSTA satire windows”. Now such a cultural trend could be called social advertising..
Mayakovsky worked in tandem with Alexander Rodchenko, artist and photographer. Over the course of ten years, they have created a number of signage, magazine drawings, as well as shop window advertisements and posters, and, as a result, formed the concept of Soviet advertising.
With the beginning of the NEP, the state, in order to promote the successful sale of their goods to the population, having withstood competition with foreign and private companies, connected for this purpose all the power of the known methods of propaganda. Advertising as such in Russia at that time was used clumsily and looked more like a notification or announcement of something.

Mayakovsky was responsible for slogans and propaganda, Rodchenko – for illustration. The poet skillfully combined commodity and political agitation. His slogans were ideological.. Text on the canvas is prominent, and Rodchenko designs it advantageously using typographic fonts, exclamation points, etc.. signs, keeping the use of funds to a minimum.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Lilya Brik advertises the publishing house

Often when designing an advertising poster, which implied the image of a common Soviet man, Rodchenko turned to photography. Lilya Brik in a red scarf – his handiwork of creation. The image of a common Soviet man, worker, toiler, building socialism with optimism and energy, occupies a central place in the work of Rodchenko and Mayakovsky.

The need for advertising and propaganda design drawings came to naught as the NEP collapsed.

5. Love and death

The personal life of the poet Mayakovsky was eventful – relationship with Lilya Brick is worth. He met Lilya and Osip Briks back in 1915 year, being a 220 year old young man.
Thanks to Mayakovsky, Briks met Soviet futurists and other creative people, and soon their apartment became a kind of bohemian salon. Soon a passionate romance broke out between Lilya and Vladimir, and a number of his works of that period, the poet dedicated to his beloved.
FROM 1918 Mayakovsky and Lilya with her husband Vulture began to live together. Relationships are strange for us in “triangle” Mayakovsky and the Brikov couple, but understandable in a post-revolutionary society beginnings 20 in., lasted until 1925 of the year.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Mayakovsky and Brik

Nonetheless, relations with Lilya did not prevent Mayakovsky from getting involved in other women. Working in “ROSTA windows” the poet met the artist Lilia Lavinskaya, later she will have a son from him Gleb-Nikita Lavinsky (1921-1986).
IN 1926 year, while in New York, Mayakovsky meets Russian emigrant Ellie Jones (Elisabeth Siebert). The romance was short-lived, however, months after the poet's departure, the woman had a daughter – Helen-Patricia, which he saw for the first and last time two years later in France.

Sophia Shamardina, Natalia Bryukhonenko, Tatiana Yakovleva, whom he met in Paris and who will return to Russia, – relationships with these women are also important episodes in Mayakovsky's personal life.
The poet's last romance was with a married woman Veronika Polonskaya. Beautiful actress of the Moscow Art Theater, she was 21 year at the time of their acquaintance, him – 36. Outside – 1929 year. She refused to leave her husband for such a difficult person., like Mayakovsky, then experiencing, by the way, not the easiest period in my life. He gave her jealousy scenes, demanded to leave her husband. After another quarrel, barely Polonskaya walked out the door and left, Mayakovsky shot himself. In a suicide note, he addresses “comrade government” take care of your family: “My family is Lilya Brik, mother, sisters and Veronika Vitoldovna Polonskaya. If you give them a tolerable life, thank you. ". The poet had only 36 years old.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

After Mayakovsky's death, his entire archive passed to Lilya Brik. For a long time, her attempts to publish at least something “from Mayakovsky” failed every time. Then Lilya wrote a letter to. Stalin, and things got off the ground.
In its resolution, printed in the newspaper “true”, Secretary General called Mayakovsky "the best and most talented poet of the Soviet era", after which the poet's work began to be published in large circulations.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

Voskresenskaya Zoya (1907-1992), Nodal – Moscow

зоя воскресенская

Зоя Воскресенская, на ее книгах выросло не одно поколение мальчишек и девчонок СССР. Все они были созданы в духе времени, характерном для советской действительности, и были необычайно популярны в свое время. В качестве дополнительного пособия по истории они интересны и сегодня.

Но это только одна сторона жизни Зои Ивановны. Большую часть жизни она занималась отнюдь не размеренной писательской деятельностью, а являлась агентом внешней разведки СССР.

1. Year and place of birth
зоя воскресенская_казутина

Родилась Зоя Воскресенская 28 april 1907 года в семье помощника железнодорожной станции Узловая, что в Тульской области. После смерти мужа мама Зои Ивановны вместе с тремя детьми перебралась в Смоленск. Там-то жизнь 13-летней девочки пошла по совсем новому, взрослому, пути.

2. ВЧК, колония, разведка

Однажды Зоя встретила человека, когда-то знавшего ее отца. Он проникся материальными проблемами семьи Воскресенских, и предложил Зое поработать библиотекарем в 42 батальоне войск ВЧК, где сам и служил. So, Зоя сталачекисткой”.

Библиотечная работа в 1923 году сменилась на воспитательную в колонии для малолетних преступников. Работа сложная, требует стального характера, а он у Зои Воскресенской, несомненно, был.

Как бы то ни было, но молодость берет свое. IN 1925 году Зоя вышла замуж за Вл. Казутина, комсомольского активиста. По долгу службы супруга перенаправили в Москву. Вслед за мужем в столицу последовала и жена. Их брак не был долгим, даже несмотря на рождение сына Володи. О причинах развода Зоя Ивановна никогда не говорила, но можно предположить, что Владимиру оказалась не по душе увлеченность жены новой работой, связанной с разведкой. Зоя из библиотекарей ОГПУ, куда устроилась в 1928 year, in 1929 году перешла в сотрудники Иностранного отдела ОГПУ внешней разведки.

3. Abroad
Воскресенская Зоя, разведчица,

IN 1930 году Зоя отправляется в первую зарубежную командировку в Китай. Там она официально работала машинисткой при советских представительствах. Проработав в Китае два года, Зоя отправляется на новой задание в Ригу. По заданию ей предстояло перевоплотиться в светскую даму, баронессу, с элегантными манерами.

После Риги последовали Вена, Берлин. Суть нового задания сводилась к тому, что Зое предстояло поехать в Швейцарию и там завязать отношения с генералом из генерального штаба Швейцарской армии. Получить с его помощью доступ к информации о военных планах Германии относительно Швейцарии и Франции.

Зоя Ивановна узнав, what “стать любовницейесть пункт задания, который не отменить, согласилась, но при этом сказала, что выполнив задание, приедет домой и застрелится. Руководство слишком хорошо относилось и уважало талантливую сотрудницу, чтобы желать ее преждевременной смерти. После этого разговора поездку в Швейцарию заменили на Финляндию, где Зое Ивановне предстояло заняться разведкой под прикрытием.

4. Рыбкин Борис Аркадьевич

IN 1935 году в Воскресенская прибыла в Хельсинки из Москвы, как новый руководитель представительстваИнтуриста”. Actually, Зоя Ивановна являлась заместителем резидента советской разведки в Финляндии. Примерно в это же время в Хельсинки прибыл советский консул по фамилии Ярцев. За этой фамилией скрывался Борис Аркадьевич Рыбкин, новый резидент разведки в Финляндии.

зоя воскресенская с мужем
Супруги Рыбкины

Поначалу отношения сотрудников никак не складывались, но через полгода молодые люди подали в разведывательный центр разрешение на женитьбу. Им дали добро.

5. Судоплатов
разведчик Судоплатов Павел
P. Судоплатов

В ходе работы супругам надлежало поддерживать связь с другими разведчиками, находящимися за рубежом, по своим источникам они получали сведения о планах Германии в отношении Финляндии, а также об отношении правительства Финляндии относительно к СССР.

На связи с четой Рыбкиных находился нелегал по имени Андрей. Он пытался внедриться в организацию украинских нацистов и проживал в Финляндии под видом эмигранта. Настоящее имя этого нелегала, которое позже войдет в историю советской разведкиPavel Sudoplatov.

6. Перед войной. “Красная капелла
Воскресенская Зоя (1907-1992), Узловая - Москва

В Москву Рыбкины вернулись к концу 1939 of the year, где оба попали в Центральный аппарат разведки. Буквально перед войной Зоя Ивановна вошла в спец группу, которая занималась аналитической работой. Именно сюда стекалась вся важная информация о происходящем в Европе. In particular, от этой группы зависела точность результата относительно сроков нападения Германии на СССР.

Зоя Ивановна изучала информацию от советских резидентур советской разведки за рубежом и, first of all, сведения из Германии. Все донесения поступали из разведывательной сети, которая носила названиеКрасная капелла”. В эту структуру входили антифашисты разных стран, в том числе и в Германии.

По данным одних агентов создавалась картина, что на западном направлении все спокойно, и все предположения о нападении Германии всего лишь американская провокация. По донесениям другихвот-вот начнется война. Вскоре Зое Ивановне предстояло воочию убедиться в верности предположения вторых

At the beginning 1941 года Зоя Ивановна в числе прочих была приглашена на прием, устраиваемый посольством Германии в СССР. И тут-то ей бросилось в глаза, что на стенах просматриваются участки не тронутые солнцем, явно свидетельствующие о том, что здесь не так давно висели картины. В менюдовольно скромный набор блюд, как будто повар не прилагал усилий к приему гостей, а быть может, его и попросту не было. У дверей одной из комнат Зоя Ивановна успела увидеть несколько упакованных чемоданов. К тому же военный пресс-атташе явно нервничал. Разведчица поняла, что немецкие дипломаты в скором времени намереваются покинуть СССР, что означает только одноначало войны. Зоя Ивановна поспешила на Лубянку с новой информацией.

17 June 1941 года была закончена и аналитическая записка руководству страны, над которой Зоя Ивановна с сотрудниками работала все последнее время. Суть работы сводилась к тому, что войну следует ожидать со дня на день.

7. Во время войны. Finland
Воскресенская Зоя (1907-1992), Узловая - Москва

Сразу после начала войны Зоя Воскресенская-Рыбкина попала в Особую группу при наркоме нацбезопасности, которой руководил Павел Судоплатов. Она занимается подготовкой молодых разведчиков к предстоящей разведывательной работе.

Вместе с мужем Зоя Ивановна отправляется в Швецию, где собирает, информацию об обстановке на оккупированных Германией территориях. Официально находясь в должности пресс-секретаря при посольстве, Зоя Ивановна занималась пропагандой просоветских настроений.

Огромные усилия чета Ярцевых (Рыбкиных) contributed to persuading influential people of this world to persuade Finland to withdraw from the war. And in 1944 year the Finns went to a truce with the USSR.

8. Personal life
зоя ивановна воскресенская, разведчица

IN 1944 году супруги Рыбкины усыновили мальчика. А уже в 1947 году в аварии погиб любимый муж и коллега. 40-летняя Зоя Ивановнасобрав волю в кулак, продолжила работу.

9. После смерти Сталина

IN 1953 году после ареста Л. Берия начались массовые аресты. Зою Ивановну эта участь миновала, однако затронула ее давнего друга П. Судоплатова. Воскресенскую-Рыбкину выдвинули в партком Управления внешней разведки, но она отказалась, заявив, что не считает себя вправе быть членом парткома, because. Павла Судоплатова обвинили незаслуженно.

После этого заявления Зою Николаевнусократили”, отправив в Воркуту в качестве сотрудника спецотдела лагеря для особо опасных преступников. На месте Зоя Ивановна работала на совесть, стараясь улучшить отбывание заключенных.

10. Writer Zoya Voskresenskaya
Зоя Воскресенская, писательница

IN 49 years Zoya Ivanovna Voskresenskaya retired, she had something to occupy herself after the full activity of life. And she starts writing books. In a publishing house for an elderly, the unknown writer was looked upon with suspicion. But soon they began to print it..

Most of the work relates to “Lenin's” subject matter, and know her, basically, в связи с этим. Однако затрагивала Зоя Ивановна и на другие темы. Причем многие критики отмечают, что в литературу Воскресенская пришла уже зрелым автором.

"зойка Воскресенская Зоя

Zoya Ivanovna was admitted to the Union of Writers of the USSR in 1965 year. In the same year, the film "Mother's Heart" was released., dedicated to the Ulyanov family, based on the book of the same name by Zoya Voskresenskaya. Её успех как писательницы был оглушительным — только с 1962 by 1980 годы её книги были изданы общим тиражом 21 642 000 экземпляров. IN 1968 году она была удостоена Государственной премии СССР, in 1980 году премии Ленинского комсомола.

11. Sunset
Воскресенская Зоя (1907-1992), Узловая - Москва

IN 80 лет Зоя Ивановна неудачно упала и получила серьезный перелом шейки бедра. Вердикт врачей был неутешительнымходить женщина больше не сможет. Но Зоя Ивановна встала на ноги. Узнав, что еерассекретилиЗоя Ивановна наконец поведала миру, кем она являлась на самом деле. Книга «Теперь я могу сказать правду» (Из воспоминаний разведчицы) вышла в декабре 1992 of the year. Зоя Ивановна не успела застать это событие. Она умерла в январе 1992 of the year. Как умерла и страна, которой она служила всю свою сознательную жизнь.

каждый из нас

Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966), Odessa-Moscow

фото юной Анны Ахматовой, Анна Ахматова (Горенко)
A brief summary of the main facts from the life of the Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova:
1. Year and place of birth of Anna Akhmatova. A family

Anna Akhmatova (Gorenko) was born 23 June 1889 year near Odessa in a place with a beautiful name Big Fountain. Her childhood was overshadowed by her parents' divorce. It all happened because of the frivolous adventures of the father of the family, Andrey Gorenko, retired navy officer. Anna's mother, Inna Erasmovna, completely devoted herself to children, trying to make amends for her negligent spouse. Every summer she took out the children to improve their health in Sevastopol.
2. Education

When it's time to decide on a place to study, Anna's choice fell on the Smolny Institute. However, unable to withstand strict routines, Akhmatova soon left him, explaining your decision simply: “He loves me a little”. The future poetess continued her education at the Mariinsky gymnasium in Tsarskoe Selo.
Ахматова Анна
3. Anna's feelings and relationships

Anna Andreevna was extremely attractive, slender, dark hair, with gray eyes. She immediately became an object of attention for high school students. But girl, eventually, chose that, who didn't need it and just used it. It was a high school student Vladimir Kutuzov-Golenishchev, future orientalist.
IN 1904 year Akhmatova 14. She took the meeting with Nikolai Gumilyov lightly. And the one, opposite, fell in love at first sight and offered her a hand and a heart at any opportunity.
Гумилев Николай, поэт
Nikolay Gumilev.
4. Nikolay Gumilev and Amedeo Modigliani

Nikolai was from a wealthy family. His parents paid for the publication of the first book of their son's poems, and also provided him with a trip to Europe. However, after being abroad, Nikolai began to yearn for Anna, suffer from unrequited love and even twice tries to commit suicide. Soon, Anna gave her consent to become Gumilyov's wife.
The wedding took place in 1910 year, after which the young poets went to Paris. Once in Montmartre, Akhmatova met the artist Amedeo Modigliani and was fascinated by him. Gumilev did not like the artist, he called him “drunken monster”. After a while, Akhmatova began an affair with an Italian artist and sculptor.
Ахматова Анна (1889-1966), Одесса-Москва
Amadeo Modigliani and one of the many portraits of Akhmatova.
5. Confession

Artist incredibly impressed Anna, but at that time she was loyal to Gumilev. They lived in a small room near Tuchkov Bridge.

Until now, literary scholars argue, were the poets happy with each other? Gumilyov long ignored his wife's poetic gift, invited her to become a dancer, noting her flexibility. But Anna said, what cannot but be a poet, and then Gumilyov gave up and helped publish her first book of poetry “Evening”.

Soon Akhmatova was recognized as her in literary circles at that time, how the marriage of two poets is bursting at the seams. Akhmatova has lovers. Later in emigrant circles there will even be rumors about her connections with Emperor Nicholas II.. Gumilyov also does not differ in the qualities of a decent family man.

Анна Ахматова
6. Change

IN 1912 year Akhmatova and Gumilyov have a son Lev. But a child does not save marriage, and c 1918 year poets disagree. The time has come hard. Akhmatova did not accept the revolution, but she also refused the option to emigrate.

Гумилев и Ахматова с сыном Львом
Gumilyov and Akhmatova with their son Leo
7. Shileiko Vladimir Kazimirovich

Akhmatova is getting married a second time. Gumilyov's mother is still looking after little Leva. The new husband of Anna Andreevna Shileiko Vladimir Kazimirovich, talented scientist, addicted to poetry. But Shileiko also turned out to be a lousy husband, like Gumilyov, escaping from the family then to the war, then to other women.
Шилейко Владимир, ученый, муж Ахматовой
Vladimir Shileiko

Shileiko and Akhmatova lived in poverty, but this did not stop Akhmatova from striking those around her with a regal posture and royal manners. As if she didn't live in some outhouse, but in the palace itself.

Very soon Akhmatova understood, that this marriage is a misunderstanding, but put up with him, as a voluntary punishment. Her husband admired her as a scientist: he knew 52 language, but is it really necessary for family happiness?

Shileiko was terribly jealous and locked the gates, so that Akhmatova does not go anywhere. And she was so thin, that crawled under the gate like a snake. Arthur Lurie was waiting for her on the street, with whom she had a fleeting affair. This gate has survived to this day, but now they are rooted in the ground. IN 1921 year Akhmatova nevertheless decided to divorce Shileiko. And the one, in its turn, loved to tell his students, what he himself threw to Akhmatova.

8. Scary year

1921 years was terrible for Akhmatova. Nikolay Gumilyov was arrested and shot in August. Akhmatova did little to raise her son, but it was she who gave Lyova an important attitude in life: love and respect for the deceased father.
9. Nikolai Punin

Akhmatova begins an exacerbation of tuberculosis. In the hospital, art critic Nikolai Punin visits her and they gradually develop mutual feelings, despite, that Punin is married. Their relationship turned out to be the longest for Akhmatova: 15 years they were close. First as lovers, then as friends. They lived in the Fountain House, whose wing has now become the Akhmatova Museum.
Николай Пунин, муж Ахматовой, искусствовед
Nikolai Punin
10. Son lion

30-e years were marked by new arrests and repression. Osip Mandelstam is taken first, then Punina. Akhmatova breaks down to Moscow and seeks his release. And in 1938 year, when her student son is arrested, no connections help anymore.
Лев Гумилев
Lev Gumilev

The official reason for the arrest was a clash between Lev Nikolaevich and a university teacher. He questioned the route of Nikolai Gumilyov's expedition in Africa. Lev, raised in admiration for the memory of the father, objected to the professor. On the same day he was arrested. For Akhmatova, endless ordeals begin in front of the prison building in the hope of delivering the package.
11. Poverty

Love relationship with Punin ends. Akhmatova is not printed or republished, she lives in poverty and is sick a lot. But her poems go from hand to hand.
IN 1940 year there is hope for the best. A collection of six books has been printed. Is considered, that the books came out thanks to Stalin's whim, once asked with the most innocent air: “And what about Akhmatova, does not write anything?”
каждый из нас

Then there was a stir in the stores, because of Akhmatova's poems literally fought. But that was a short bright streak in the poet's life. IN 1941 year the war begins. Friends help Akhmatova to evacuate from Leningrad to Tashkent even before the famine.
Ахматова в возрасте
12. Post-war time

Lev Gumilyov's exile ends during the war, he volunteers for the front and returns with Victory. Post-war times don't make life easy. IN 1949 Punin was last arrested this year. He is destined to die in prison. It happened in August, almost day to day with the death of Gumilyov. Akhmatova gave the tragic coincidence a sacred meaning: “Every August, Good god, So many holidays and deaths”.
However, November 1949 the year was no better. Lev Gumilyov is sentenced to 10 years of camps. Akhmatova's name is banned until 1954 of the year. Lev Gumilyov was released only in 1956 year.
13. Last years

For Akhmatova, the last decade of her life is the least tragic and very fruitful.. Her books are being printed, in Italy she was awarded a literary prize. Akhmatova receives the honorary title of professor of Oxford and a real mantle. And in Russia she has talented students, such as Joseph Brodsky. Akhmatova died after the fourth heart attack 5 Martha 1966 of the year, being in Moscow, but bequeathed to bury herself near Leningrad.