Kuchelbecker Wilhelm (1797-1846), St. Petersburg – Tobolsk

Кюхельбекер Вильгельм
1. The origin of the Kuchelbecker. Education

21 June 1797 years in St. Petersburg in the family of German noblemen Küchelbecker son Wilhelm was born. His father, Karl Kuchelbecker, State Councillor, was considered the most educated person of his time. Wilhelm's mother Justin von Lohmann came from the Baltic nobility, was the nanny of the youngest son of Emperor Paul I.

Remarkably, As for 6 For years, Wilhelm Karlovich did not know a word of Russian. At the age of 12, he lost his father, the head of the family died of consumption. The family finds itself in financial dire straits, However, Wilhelm's mother managed to give her son a good education, arranging him in a private boarding house of Johann Friedrich Brinkmann, training which was considered the best.

IN 1811 year Kuchelbecker with the filing of Barclay de Tolly was admitted to the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. There, Pushkin A became his comrades.. FROM., Delvig A. AND., Gorchakov A. M.

Patriotic War 1812 of the year, that national rise, who reigned then in the Fatherland, could not help but touch the young hearts of lyceum students. Judging by those articles, which Kuchelbecker wrote out in his notebook, can be understood, what topics interested him: "Way of government", "Lower (fairness of their judgments)», "Slavery".

дуэль Пушкин и Кюхельбекер.

Kuchelbecker's character was characterized by irascibility, plus to this he was deaf after a childhood illness and, moreover, clumsy, together, because of this, he often became an object of ridicule. Famous epigram A. FROM, Pushkin: “I ate too much at dinner, And Yakov locked the door in error - So it was for me, my friends, And küchelbecker and sickening” became the reason for calling the poet to a duel. At that time, the event was without casualties.

IN 1815 the first poems of Kuchelbecker were published in magazines “Amphion” and “Son of the Fatherland”. After graduating from the lyceum (with a silver medal), he received the rank of titular councilor.

2. Oppositionist. Success in Paris. Caucasus

FROM 1817 years together with Pushkin Kuchelbecker has been working at the College of Foreign Affairs. In parallel, he taught Latin and Russian at the Noble Boarding School of the Pedagogical Institute. In his lectures, he told students about the importance of freedom., openly opposed despotism.

Кюхельбекер В. К.

IN 1820 Kuchelbecker in support of the exiled to the south of country A. Pushkin publicly read his poem “Poets”, telling about the hard way of people of creativity. Learning, that his persona caught the attention of the foreign minister, Kuchelbecker decided to leave the country for a short time. Having settled down as a secretary with the director of the Imperial Theaters Alexander Naryshkin, he accompanied him on a trip abroad.

Once in Paris and have enough time there, Küchelbecker took advantage of the offer to give public lectures on Russian literature at the city lecture hall “Athenaeum”. Soon, lectures on the history of Russian literature grew into loud criticism of the Russian government, her despotism, serfdom. Learning about seditious speeches of his secretary, Naryshkin immediately relieved him of his post.

Upon arrival in Russia, Küchelbecker was sent to serve in the Caucasus to General Yermolov in the status of an official on special assignments. However, he also did not stay long there.. Having quarreled and gave two slaps to the nephew of the general, he was suspended from service. However, during this period, in the Caucasus, Kuchelbecker meets Alexander Griboyedov and finds a close-minded person in him. There is an opinion, that the prototype of Chatsky in the comedy of Griboyedov is none other, like Kuchelbecker.

3. Kuchelbecker – publisher

Left without work in the civil service, Kuchelbecker moved to Moscow and planned to publish his own magazine there.. Cooperating with the publisher Vl. Odoevsky, soon he published the first issue of the almanac "Mnemosyne". Moreover, the Kuchelbecker project was very successful.: poems, stories, the anecdotes liked the reading audience.

4. Kuchelbecker – Decembrist

IN 1825 Kuchelbecker returned to St. Petersburg, where did you get along with the Decembrists. He was accepted into an underground revolutionary organization “Northern Society”, the essence of which was reduced to the transformation of the state system in Russia. Two weeks later, an uprising took place on Senate Square, in which Kuchelbecker was directly involved.

Кюхельбекер декабрист

14 December 1825 year poet, once the publisher Kuchelbecker shot the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich. The attempt failed – the gun misfired several times. The uprising did not go according to plan, and Küchelbecker had to run. He tried to hide in Warsaw, but already in January 1826 was arrested, after which he was sent to the Peter and Paul Fortress. In July of the same year, Kuchelbecker was first sentenced to death., then the sentence was commuted and commuted to lengthy imprisonment with subsequent exile to Siberia.

10-years served his sentence Küchelbecker. During this time, views on the issues of concern to him have not changed., he still took up the pen. In particular, wrote a poem “David”, translated Shakespeare.

5. Link

IN 1835 Kuchelbecker, after 10 years of imprisonment, was allowed to go to the town of Barguzin, that in the Irkutsk province. His brother Mikhail already lived there. Together they set up an impressive household, taught local residents to grow new crops.

Küchelbecker did not abandon literary creation, wrote an ethnographic essay "Inhabitants of Transbaikalia and Zakamenya", the poem "Yuri and Ksenia", historical drama "The Fall of the Shuisky House", novel "The Last Column". In correspondence with A. FROM. Pushkin interestingly describes the behavior of the Tungus.

Two years later, Kuchelbecker married the daughter of the Barguzin postmaster Drosida Ivanovna Artenova. The last year and a half of his life he lived in the village. Smolino, Kurgan district, Tobolsk province. The health of the Decembrist poet has already been severely undermined. Tuberculosis and developing blindness required treatment, and in January 1846 Küchelbecker was allowed to move to Tobolsk for treatment. However already 23 August of the same year Wilhelm Karlovich Küchelbecker passed away.

Кюхельбекер Вильгельм (1797-1846), Санкт-Петербург - Тобольск

Voloshin Maximilian (1877-1932), Kiev-Koktebel

Волошин Максимилиан
M.A. Волошин. Paris. 1905 year
1. Origin

Voloshin Maximilian was born in Kiev 16 may 1877 in the family of Alexander Maksimovich Kirienko-Voloshin, lawyer by occupation. Max's mother – Elena Ottobaldovna, nee Glaser, was a strong-willed and extraordinary woman. The marriage of the spouses did not last long, and in the future, raising a son, Elena Ottobaldovna will be engaged almost exclusively.

Елена Оттобальдовна Кириенко-Волошина
Elena Ottobaldovna Kiriyenko-Voloshina
2. Voloshin Education

Voloshin received primary education, studying at home with a tutor. The main emphasis in the classroom was on the humanities. Subsequently, he studied, true, without much success in the gymnasiums of Moscow and Feodosia.
IN 1893 the mother of the future poet bought a house in Koktebel, where she moved with her son.

IN 1897 year, losing ground to parents, Maximilian entered Moscow University at the Faculty of Law. Own initiative to study at the Faculty of History and Philology remained unfulfilled.
IN 1899 Voloshin was expelled from the university for a year for participating in "student unrest". However, after the restoration of his studies did not ask, and soon the young man finally said goodbye to the alma mater, which he did not like.

3. Creative life: poetry, translations, painting
Волошин Макс
1896 year.

In 1890, the first poetic experience of Voloshin dates from the year. IN 1895 the first publication of his work in the collection “In Memory. TO. Vinogradova.

Since 1898, while still a university student, and on 1905 gg. Voloshin traveled a lot (“years of wandering”). Not having a surplus of funds, he often walked, stayed overnight in shelters, and thus explored a number of European states (Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Greece). Voloshin spent a month and a half in Central Asia.

Period from 1905 g. by 1912 the poet will call later “years of wandering”. At this time, he will seek meanings in Buddhism, Catholicism, carried away by occultism, to be adopted in Paris by Masons. IN 1914 year he will be interested in the ideas of anthroposophy.

Волошин Максимилиан

Without lingering for a long time in one place, Волошин, Nevertheless, was an active participant in the literary life of Russia. IN 1907 g. poet settled in Koktebel, there he set about preparing a cycle “Cimmerian Twilight”. He translates the poetry of Paul Verlaine from French into Russian, Henri de Rainier, Jose Maria de Heredia, Stefana Malllarme, Emil Verharn and Prose Villiers de Lille Adana, Paul Claudel, Paul de Saint Victor.
IN 1910 the first collection of Voloshin's poems was published. At the same time, he collaborates with the journal of the Symbolists “Libra” and acmeists “Apollo”, increasingly gaining credibility in the writing community

Крымский пейзаж 1925., Волошин М.
Crimean landscape 1925

In January 1913 years in the Tretyakov Gallery was subjected to an act of vandalism picture and. Repin “Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan”. This case has stirred society. Voloshin also did not stand aside. 13 February, he gave a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum "On the artistic value of the affected painting Repin", the essence of which boiled down to, that the reason and aggressive act of the vandal was the form and content of Repin’s canvas. The lecture by the audience was mixed, some time Voloshin’s publications were boycotted by publishers.

One year later, in 1914 g., Voloshin's book on culture published “Liki creations”. IN 1915 g. – poem-reaction to military events in the world – "Burning the year 1915» (“In the year of the burning world of 1915”). Voloshin designated his anti-war position, by writing a letter to the Minister of War, in which he refused to serve in the tsarist army and participate "in a bloody massacre".

Карадаг в облаках
Karadag in the clouds
Луна восходит
Moon rises

In the same years, the poet was busy with watercolor painting.. The main theme of his work will be the Cimmerian landscape. His watercolors Voloshin, like japanese masters, signed with lines from his own poems. With a number of paintings, he took part in exhibitions “World of Art”.
Voloshin-artist is usually attributed to “Cimmerian School of Painting”, along with Aivazovsky, Kuinji et al. His watercolors can be found in the Tretyakov Gallery, as well as in some provincial museums.

5. Cherubina de Gabriac. Гумилев, duel

Cherubina de Gabriac – mysterious poetess, represented in the Russian cultural society in 1909 year. 9 months the public did not suspect, what is behind this name is an unknown teacher Elizabeth Dmitrieva, and this character arose with the light hand of Max Voloshin, at that time already famous poet.

Черубина да Габриак, Дмитриева Е.
E. Dmitrieva

I met Dmitrieva Voloshin at the beginning 1909 of the year. Shortly before this Elizabeth, ugly girl, but undeniably talented and interesting in its own way, attracted by her extraordinary poet N. Gumileva. Between them, a very difficult relationship, culminating in a summer trip to Koktebel, where the center of attraction of people of art then was the house of Max Voloshin.

Voloshin was older than Dmitrieva by 10 years old, wiser and more experienced. Eventually, the girl preferred him to Gumilev. The rejected poet left Crimea, Dmitrieva stayed until the fall. It was during this period of time that the beauty Cherubina de Gabriak was born, talented young poetess. 18-summer catholic, strictly educated in the monastery. Spanish father, Russian by mother, she writes poetry, who would like to publish in a magazine “Apollo”, but under the watchful eye of a father, she allegedly cannot communicate directly with the editor of the magazine Sergey Makovsky, and therefore it is possible only through correspondence.

Черубина, Дмитриева Е.
Dmitrieva in Koktebel

Why did you need this hoax? The reason is – ugliness Dmitrieva. There is an opinion, that Makovsky, magazine editor “Apollo”, who was preparing to print not without Voloshin’s participation, being an esthete would hardly agree to deal with an outwardly unappealing, even talented, young lady. This did not fit into the aristocratic concept of the magazine..

The draw was a success. Intrigued by exquisite letters of a stranger with a difficult fate, Makovsky was seriously interested in the poetess. Dmitrieva and Voloshin realized, that sooner or later it will be necessary to put an end to this game, because. the hype around Cherubin only grew and the girl won’t be able to remain faceless for a long time.

Having spoken to the poet-translator Johann von Gunther about the true face, hiding behind Cherubin’s mask, Dmitrieva marked the beginning of the end of mystification. That, in its turn, shared information with Mikhail Kuzmin, and then editor Makovsky found out about everything, until recently did not believe that, that he was played.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель
Gumilev N. and Voloshin M.

Learned about a bad joke and n. Гумилев. When the masks were reset, he publicly threw Dmitrieva: “You were my lover, they will not marry such. Волошин, upon learning of an insult to Elizabeth, also publicly slapped a poet who was once offended by a girl. A duel has been assigned, both poets were safe and sound, but this nasty episode has been talked about for a long time. The story invented by Voloshin and Dmitrieva with Cherubina, started with a simple draw, ended scandalously and awkwardly.

6. Over the fight
Волошин Максимилиан в центре
Voloshin in the center

Years of revolution and civil war Voloshin chose to stay at home. He said: “When a mother is sick, her children stay with her”. Becoming a fight, he fought hard for “senseless destruction” of monuments, of books, people. So, in 1918 g. his care saved the estate E from defeat. AND. Jung, where many works of art were kept, rare library.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель

Summer 1919 years Voloshin rescued from the White Guard lynch general N. AND. Of Marx, prominent paleographer, compiled “Legends of Crimea”, who in the past dealt with the Bolsheviks. In May 1920 of the year, when the underground Bolshevik congress was opened by white counterintelligence, gathered in Koktebel, one of the delegates found shelter and protection in Voloshin’s house. In late July, Maximilian Alexandrovich helped the liberation of the poet O.. E. Mandelstam, arrested by the White Guards.

7. Voloshin about the Crimea

Voloshin's attitude to Crimea, as part of the Russian state, can be understood from the letter to A. Petrova, written 10 may 1918 of the year: “Crimea is too little Russia, and in essence, almost nothing has seen evil from the Russian conquest over the past century and a half. It cannot be independent, since with a cash of more than twelve nationalities, its inhabiting, and not nests, and in the layer, he is not able to create any state. He needs a "conqueror". For Crimea, as for the country, it is beneficial to be directly connected with Germany in the next era (not with Ukraine and not with Austria). [… The psychological question is much more complicated., for us Russians, connected by all the roots of his soul with Cimmeria. Our physical - earthly homeland is now surgically separated from the homeland of spiritual Holy Russia)”.

дом М. Волошина в Крыму
house M. Voloshina in Crimea
8. Personal life

IN 1906 Voloshin married the artist Sabashnikova Margarita (Cupid, Margory) This alliance did not last long., Sabashnikova left Max for the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov and his wife Lydia, deciding to form a new type of family with them.

Маргоря, Маргарита Сабашникова.
Margory, Margarita Sabashnikova.

IN 1922 year, when the famine began in Crimea, Voloshin hired a paramedic from the neighboring village of Zabolotskaya Marusya to care for his elderly mother. So, Maroussia and remained in the house of the poet as a wife, mistresses of his house.

Волошин Макс с супругой Марией Степановной
Voloshin Max with his wife Maria Stepanovna

Max Voloshin Died 11 august 1932 of the year, he was only 55 years old. He was buried on the hill of Kuchuk-Enishar, bounding Koktebel left, just like Karadag limits it to the right. Maria Stepanovna managed to save the house of the poet, without breaking his orders – its doors were still wide open for poets, writers, artists, and just wanderers.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель
Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель

Kheraskov Mikhail Matveevich (1733-1807), Pereyaslavl-Moscow

Херасков М. М.
Kheraskov M. M.
1. Year and place of birth. Origin

Mikhail Kheraskov was born 5 November 1733 years in g. Pereyaslavl, where is his father (Matthew Jerescu, noble Moldovan) received an estate after the Prut campaign in 1711 year. Mother came from the Drutsky-Sokolinsky family.

Overall, Mikhail Matveyevich belonged to the highest circle of the aristocracy. After the death of the head of the family, the mother of the future writer remarried Prince Trubetskoy N. YU., and the Kheraskovs moved to Izium, where he was serving at that time Nikita Yurievich. After the appointment of his stepfather to a new position in St. Petersburg, Kheraskov and his family moved to the capital.

2. Education

To 10 years Mikhail studied at home. Arithmetic, geometry, foreign languages, geography – the main set of subjects for primary education at the time. IN 1743 year, his stepfather enrolls him in the Land Gentry Cadet Corps, in which the main subjects, serious attention was paid to the cultural life of adolescents. So, in the institution, students organized performances and gathered in literary circles.

3. Career

IN 1751 year Mikhail Kheraskov was released from the cadet corps to the Ingermanland regiment with the rank of second lieutenant, and, having been an officer for four years, moved to the civil service. IN 1756 year at Moscow University, he received the position of assessor (in other words, supervised students), and also headed the student library and became the head of the university theater.

Moreover, in 1757 year under the tutelage of Kheraskov, the printing house of Moscow University was transferred, and later the Moscow Synodal Printing House. At the university printing house, he organized a number of print publications ("Useful entertainment", "Free hours", "Innocent exercise", "Good intention"), becoming a center of gravity for writing student youth.

In addition to printing and theater, Mikhail Matveyevich was responsible for the mineralogical cabinet, supervised Russian actors in Moscow and was responsible for contracts with Italian singers.

IN 1761 year Kheraskov was appointed acting director of the university. An important achievement in this position was the organization in 1768 year of lectures in Russian. This was not easy to achieve, because. European professors forced Moscow University to teach exclusively in Latin.

Kheraskov, being in serious opposition with a number of influential persons, nevertheless, he addressed the language issue directly to Catherine II. The situation unfolded during the Empress's journey along the Volga in 1767 year, in which Mikhail Matveyevich also took part in the composition of her retinue. After a while, the issue was resolved in favor of using the Russian language.

In May 1770 of the year (37 years old) Kheraskov was appointed Vice President of the Berg Collegium (organization, who was in charge of the mining industry in Russia) in the rank of state councilor. Four years later, Mikhail Matveyevich resigned. There is an assumption, that the resignation was not the initiative of Kheraskov himself, but as if he fell into disgrace because of his serious hobby for Freemasonry, which he joined in 1773 year, because. resignation was not accompanied in his case by the due pension.

After his resignation, Mikhail Kheraskov participated in the publishing of the first philosophical journal in Russia “Morning light” under the direction of N. Novikova. With Novikov, Kheraskov will continue close cooperation in 1778 year after restoration to disgrace. Becoming the curator of Moscow University, he will order to transfer the printing house to Novikov for a period of 10 years old, as a result of which the latter will begin to actively develop its publishing activities, what, in its turn, will have a positive effect on increasing the readability of the Russian population.

IN 1783 year Kheraskov became a member of the Russian Academy, and in 1786 year was awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 2nd degree.

Херасков Михаил Матвеевич (1733-1807), Переяславль-Москва
Kheraskov M. M. in mature years.

However, despite the negative past, masonic-related, Kheraskov left no lodge, for which later I got into the situation again, which threatened him with new serious troubles. Accused of conducting secret Masonic rituals on his estate, Mikhail Matveyevich only thanks to the intercession of influential acquaintances before Catherine was able to hold on to the post of curator of the university. However, after his arrest in 1792 year N. Novikova Kheraskov's position was shaken, and he was forbidden to do university business. His position will change only with the arrival of Paul I.

In November 1802 already under Alexander I, Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov was dismissed from service with a pension "at the request and for old age". At an advanced age, the writer received the rank of real privy councilor.

4. Literary activity

Heraskov made his debut in literature in 1758 a play “Venetian nun”, and in 1761 year staged a comedy in verse Atheist and wrote an ode, dedicated to E. Р. Dashkova.

In January 1762 Mikhail Matveyevich wrote an ode to the accession to the throne of Peter III, in July - on the ascent of Catherine II. Subsequently, Kheraskov annually dedicated a new poem to the Empress, he also wrote poems for her coronation 1763 year.

IN 1778 year Kheraskov completed an epic poem “Rossiada”. The author worked on this voluminous work for eight years.. The poem was presented to the Empress and pleased her. Kheraskov thus freed himself from disgrace, received a decent cash prize and was appointed curator of Moscow University.

Pavel Kheraskov, who replaced Catherine, dedicated the poem “Tsar, or saved Novgorod ". He also welcomed Alexander I to the throne with majestic odes.

Died Kheraskov 27 september (9 October) 1807 in Moscow. In recent years, he continued to write, collaborated with magazines "Vestnik Evropy", "Patriot" and "Friend of Enlightenment".

5. Personal life

IN 1760 year (27 years old) Kheraskov married Elizaveta Vasilyevna Neronova. The woman also wrote poetry and fully shared her husband's Masonic views.. Their house eventually became a recognized center of literary Moscow.

The couple did not have children, but they took Anna Karamysheva for education, whose memoirs were found in papers AND. E. Velikopolsky in the village of Chukavin, Staritsky district of Tver province, his daughter N. AND. Chaplina. In addition to describing the life of a noble family, Karamysheva gives some information about M. M. Heraskove.

Matyunina Tatiana Vladimirovna. Kaluga-Kovdor. Spiritual Warrior

Матюнина Татьяна Владимировна, стихотворения

You – it's me, and I – it is you.

My name is Tanya. Life decreed so, that I live in the Arctic Circle, on the edge of the world.
It's very tempting, somewhere wild, and, the most important thing, inspiring. This is where my thoughts rest, when it comes to creativity. And that's fine. I will say, what before, in my youth I wrote poetry for songs, music, but everything stayed there, Where, where I am no longer. I understood, that it was just my unformed impulses. It was nice, and many liked, but I wanted more.

Our life is so endless, and so short. Sometimes it can fit in the palm of your hand, and sometimes the world is not enough. And everyone is happy in his, personally for his life. It's so funny, because everything funny breathes. Our perception, our vision of natural beauty, everything is very important and inspires. We are all interconnected and produce a long chain of sensations.. I want to present my view, your feelings, and your world for everyone, maybe, and yours.

Now, having come a long way for myself, having lived many fortunes, passions and obstacles, I wanted to breathe, just.. to breathe, and nothing came to me, Besides, to write. Write, and in this form. In the end, I realized, what life, it's mine, it's a huge world in a small palm, and there are many wonderful things, what can you learn for yourself, in some moment. It's like a magician's hat, any hare can run out of)), and it will be amazing.
Be happy, everyone in their own way. ❤

Матюнина Татьяна Владимировна. Калуга-Ковдор. Духовный воин

My poems, have no names.
They are not conditioned.
They simply, as a dialogue of life with you.

Осень. Ковдор. фото Т. Матюниной
Autumn. Kovdor. photo T. Matyunina.

You know, how it happens..
You know, when the ice melts –
nothing is terrible in a vicious hour..
You don't think anything – live now.
After all, you are now and nothing bothers you.
Why swim somewhere, coming up with a way.
After all, now in your chambers
No one can shine with their stupidity.
You know, be – does not mean to act.
A certain time is given to everyone, to understand
That segment of the present, so as not to drift.
And no one can take it away.

November 2020

I like weightlessness,
When you live or not.
I like someone's taunt,
What can exclaim in response.!?!.
I like, that we are all alive
And looking for a dull answer.
I like, that we are sad
That we all give a shit about advice.
I like, that we are poor.
I like… A little something – at once “Not!..”
I like, that immediately syllables.
I like, in this answer.
Ludicrous, merciless, donated,
And we want to curse.
I like your “slaughter”.
Why do we reprimand Mother again?..!
I like, what are so diligent,
In a blazing realm of grief.
I like that, that you are generous
For a moment, just trying, capturing..
You are ready to give all the generosity,
Unaware of fear and lies,
As if you are eating again
That little in the greatness of guilt.


Ковдор, сентябрь 2020. ПОэзия Матюнина Т.
Kovdor, September 2020.


I thought so, that I want to live alone.
Yes, just not my man..
I thought, that I can live breathing,
But one – not my priority.

I really wanted to live,
Without passing friends,
Don't take yourself to lie, be,
And again a lot of problems.

I'm just not there, where I want.
I'm just not that, what i am.
Not that, what am I doing here.
Knowing no honor, no flattery.

You know, delirium is so ridiculous,
But in him there is pain and evil.
It contains the sincerity of our shoulder straps,
That we achieved in jest.

I know, that there is no better.
Only then, what is jarring in the chest –
That feeling, which in revenge
Gnaw us, and beats locked up.

Spit, and why do we live?!
Trying to overcome myself.
For good, or with this sense
One day we will drag.

Like before, like the speed of nights
Will you spit on yourself or Not?..?
After all, only that is true, what live,
Only here and now is the answer in us.

Ковдор, Мурманская обл. Поэзия Матюнина Т.


We rejoice, because we love.
We are folding, because we know.
We believe in miracles, because we believe.
We are callous, because may
Our dream, our inviolability.
Keeping in my soul, we believe again
Into it. Do not be ashamed amid swear words,
And then, what is!.., and no other foundations.
We know, that sometimes the past
Will want to repay us now
That thought, business, disgust and pain,
But we dare not match this.
Because we are alive, alive, and so flattering
Your own life, we are just as clean,
Without doing anything. We are so carrying “chambers”,
Bending over, elevating the falsity of that spark.
We know the truth,.. But the hour is so deadly.
We know lies, but we are stuffed to death.
Dumb now, but someone is sleeping in us..
Let's not mumble, we are completely killed.
You know? – but rather not –
That beats so sadly overnight..
Not that, Not this, and not light..
And that, that we are foolishly losing our happiness.

Матюнина Татьяна Владимировна. Калуга-Ковдор. Духовный воин
Kovdor, Murmansk region.

We live like this – as usual.
We live like this? forgetting about personal. And maybe we know,
Why are we fading away..
I can feel your cold this way,
That does not lend itself to oblivion.
I don't want to see it again,
And I feed again, sick..
Why should this become? We are looking for her.
Why do we believe in pain, torturing
Himself, still burning alone,
Still, without leaving, in an instant, leaving…
To please yourself, thoughts, celebrations
Perhaps for later
Loving and rejoicing, what do you have.
And who.., keeping your sweetness, dying
From life, what not to overcome..
Smiles and rejoices, in spite of
To love, without knowing, How can I help you.
By giving away, remnants of paradise.
What are we? We can and exclaim!
Who said, that we are all immortal?
And all, loving, may arise,
Leaving a part of myself, fading everywhere.
For a while, to being thoughtless.
And we have the right to think so.
We don't know, how can we listen
That feeling, what makes you believe.

I feel now,
That the old life is dying.
So slow in thought
It flows away.
All the old pain,
Pouring out of me,
Pinches me
And saying goodbye to me.
I felt so sad
And so the end is heard,
What all, won back
The last plot.
Privately, everything in me,
Only a thirst for silence.
How was not, farce, all
From the outside feel.

How quiet it is
Carries my life.
All phrases, the answers
Throws out a moment.
And all over and over again
Pass like a dream
All shots, behind the eye
Saying goodbye to me.

I am moved, when I look at you.
Sometimes I repent, what was done in vain.
For the sake of thought or again being.
And all love is not in numbers.
Again we were, and we are not here.
Forgotten again and match again.
Again we can, and pass again.
Happened again, and no, out of suit.
You are an angel, what to look for
You are a wormhole – can't take.
All that past, in a hurry to lie?
No, more we will lie.
Lie to yourself, for what, we do not know.
But you sleep, and will be paradise
Our whole life, that stirs dreams
And not in lies, but in the pure it judges.
We will live, and death is given.
What about us? We all have to
Live sparingly again on the bed
And again in the dirt, looking for good ones.


I feel now,
That the old life is dying.
So slow in thought
It flows away.
All the old pain
Pouring out of me,
Pinches me,
And saying goodbye to me.
I felt so sad,
And so the end is heard,
That all played out
The last plot.
Private everything in me –
Only a thirst for silence.
How was not… farce everything –
From the outside feel.

How quiet it is
Carries my life.
All phrases, the answers
Throws out a moment.
And all over and over again
Pass, like a dream,
All frames behind the eye
Saying goodbye to me.

Матюнина Татьяна Владимировна. Калуга-Ковдор. Духовный воин

Let's make everyone happy
Invisible sleep.
Lovely and sweet
Smile smitten.
Ridiculous sorrows
Leave for a moment.
After all, we are all by conscience
We know the cry.
And life will be joyful,
Like a mother, not rejoicing
Amuse the child.
And yet we are peaceful,
Seeing no offense,
Beautiful, strong –
Divine face.
Tired, wise
We paint all our life
We are sleeping, and we are wonderful
Forgetting evil.

Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930), Baghdati-Moscow

Владимир Маяковский
1. Vladimir Mayakovsky. Year and place of birth of the poet

Vladimir Mayakovsky was born 19 July 1893 years in Georgia (at that time was part of the Russian Empire), in the village of Baghdati. His mother, nee Alexandra Alekseevna Pavlenko, originally from Kuban. Father, Vladimir Konstantinovich, from the Cossacks, served as a forester in the Erivan province. In addition to Vladimir, the family had two daughters, Lyudmila and Olga. Two boys in the Mayakovsky family died in childhood.
Владимир Маяковский с семьей
Vladimir Mayakovsky with his family

IN 1906 the father of the family died suddenly, moreover, from the banal prick of a finger with an ordinary needle and the subsequent blood poisoning. This made an indelible impression on Vladimir, all his life he will avoid using needles and pins.
2. Education and revolution

The first educational institution of Mayakovsky was a gymnasium in Kutaisi, where he studied with 1902 of the year. Living among Georgians, he knew Georgian well from childhood, and later even called himself “Georgian”.
When in 1905 the year the revolution reached the Caucasus, 12-summer Mayakovsky took an active part in rallies and demonstrations, supporting revolutionary ideas. IN 1906 year after the death of her father, Alexandra Alekseevna moved with her children to Moscow. For two years Vladimir attended the 5th classical gymnasium. IN 1908 he was expelled from the 5th grade for lack of funds to pay for tuition.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

While studying at the gymnasium, Mayakovsky first wrote “incredibly revolutionary” poem, which was published in an underground school magazine. Revolutionary ideas filled him: he worked in an underground printing house, joined the Bolshevik Party. Young Mayakovsky was arrested twice, but every time he got away with it. However, third time out of luck: he spent in Butyrka prison 11 months. There was plenty of time, and Vladimir began to write poetry and read books there.
You can say, the conclusion with the accompanying self-education and reflections brought Mayakovsky to a new level. He wanted to radically change the aesthetics of classical art for a new one. Inspired by, Mayakovsky decided to become an artist while still in prison. Freed, he began to prepare for admission to the Moscow School of Painting, sculpture and architecture. IN 1911 year he became a student.
3. The path to popularity. Poetry and drama

While studying at the painting school, sculpture and architecture Mayakovsky met D. Burliuk, IN. Khlebnikov and A.. Kruchenykh and joined the Cubo-Futurists. He starts writing poetry again, and the very first poem by Mayakovsky “Night” (1912) was published in the collection of futurists “A slap in the face to public taste”.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
1912 year. Moscow. Group of futurists. Sit in. IN. Khlebnikov, D. L. Kuzmin, FROM. D. Dolinsky. They stand N. D. Burlyuk, D. D. Burlyuk, IN. IN. Mayakovsky

IN 1912 year 30 November Vladimir Mayakovsky made his first public appearance in an artistic cafe “homeless dog”. Together with the futurists, the young poet promoted a new art, for which he was expelled from the school. IN 1913 the futurists went on a tour of Russian cities, arranging an exhibition of futuristic paintings in each, reading poetry and lectures.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

IN 1913 Mayakovsky turned to drama. He wrote a tragedy “Vladimir Mayakovsky”, he staged it and himself played the main role in it. Next, the poet decided to master cinema and, as a result, wrote several scripts, and also starred in the film "Drama at the Futurist Cabaret # 13".
IN 1918 The premiere of Mayakovsky's play "Mystery-Buff" under the direction of V. Meyerhold.
IN 1928-1929 gg. Mayakovsky wrote satirical plays “Bedbug” and “Bathroom”. They were staged at the Meyerhold Theater. The poet himself took an active part in the preparation of the performances, acting as a second director.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Rehearsal of the production of "Bath" based on the play by Vladimir Mayakovsky in the State Theater and Theater
(1930 year) . Vsevolod Meyerhold shows the mise-en-scene.

“Bathroom” was staged only a few times, after which she was banned until 1953 of the year. Both plays were perceived as satire on the Soviet system and bureaucracy.. The government did not disregard attacks “the main Soviet poet”, and already in 1930 g. denied him travel abroad.

The official criticism suddenly found, that Mayakovsky's satire is more, what is not appropriate, because. a number of phenomena, ridiculed by the poet in his plays, these are already relics of the past, eg, bureaucracy and bureaucratic lawlessness. Moreover, opinions were expressed, which hurt the poet, that he is just “companion”, but not, really, “proletarian writer”.
IN 1930 Mayakovsky decided to summarize the results of his 20-year creative activity and prepared an exhibition. He hand-picked newspaper articles, drawings, decorated the premises, hung posters. However, despite the large number of people wishing to attend the event, there were no representatives of literary organizations among the visitors. The official side also ignored the fact of this peculiar anniversary.. Poetess Olga Berggolts later recalled:

“I will never forget, as in the House of Press at the exhibition of Vladimir Vladimirovich "Twenty years of work", which for some reason was almost boycotted by the "big" writers, we, several Smenovites, literally for days were on duty near the stands, physically suffering from, with what a sad and stern face walked through the empty halls of a large, A tall man, hands behind my back, walked up and down, as if waiting for someone very dear and more and more convinced, that this dear person will not come”.

Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Exhibition 20 years of work
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

By 1930, the poet's position on all fronts can be confidently called a crisis.
4. “Left front”

Also in 1922 Mayakovsky became the head of the literary and artistic association “Left Front Arts”. It included such writers and artists, as: NN. Aseev, V.V.. Kamensky, S.I.. Kirsanov, A.E.. Twisted, B.L. Parsnip, A.M. Rodchenko, V.F. Stepanova, V.E.. Tatlin et al.

Like futurism “LEF members” denied traditional principles in art, and advocated the creation of new forms of it. Several important points in the position “LEF”: principle “life-building”, theory “social order” and highlighting “literary fact”, ie. fantasy and fiction when creating new art must be forgotten.

By the end of the 20s “LEF” mired in a crisis due to over-regulation, participants are at an impasse in their construction of a new art. IN 1928 Mayakovsky left the association, but in may 1929 tried to organize a group, similar “LEFu”, calling it “Revolutionary front of the arts” (REF). However, the work in the union did not go well., and soon disintegrated, and Mayakovsky joined the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers.
5. Mayakovsky and Rodchenko the first Soviet advertisers

IN 1919 a number of artists and poets have begun work on a series of propaganda posters “ROSTA satire windows”. Now such a cultural trend could be called social advertising..
Mayakovsky worked in tandem with Alexander Rodchenko, artist and photographer. Over the course of ten years, they have created a number of signage, magazine drawings, as well as shop window advertisements and posters, and, as a result, formed the concept of Soviet advertising.
With the beginning of the NEP, the state, in order to promote the successful sale of their goods to the population, having withstood competition with foreign and private companies, connected for this purpose all the power of the known methods of propaganda. Advertising as such in Russia at that time was used clumsily and looked more like a notification or announcement of something.

Mayakovsky was responsible for slogans and propaganda, Rodchenko – for illustration. The poet skillfully combined commodity and political agitation. His slogans were ideological.. Text on the canvas is prominent, and Rodchenko designs it advantageously using typographic fonts, exclamation points, etc.. signs, keeping the use of funds to a minimum.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Lilya Brik advertises the publishing house

Often when designing an advertising poster, which implied the image of a common Soviet man, Rodchenko turned to photography. Lilya Brik in a red scarf – his handiwork of creation. The image of a common Soviet man, worker, toiler, building socialism with optimism and energy, occupies a central place in the work of Rodchenko and Mayakovsky.

The need for advertising and propaganda design drawings came to naught as the NEP collapsed.

5. Love and death

The personal life of the poet Mayakovsky was eventful – relationship with Lilya Brick is worth. He met Lilya and Osip Briks back in 1915 year, being a 220 year old young man.
Thanks to Mayakovsky, Briks met Soviet futurists and other creative people, and soon their apartment became a kind of bohemian salon. Soon a passionate romance broke out between Lilya and Vladimir, and a number of his works of that period, the poet dedicated to his beloved.
FROM 1918 Mayakovsky and Lilya with her husband Vulture began to live together. Relationships are strange for us in “triangle” Mayakovsky and the Brikov couple, but understandable in a post-revolutionary society beginnings 20 in., lasted until 1925 of the year.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва
Mayakovsky and Brik

Nonetheless, relations with Lilya did not prevent Mayakovsky from getting involved in other women. Working in “ROSTA windows” the poet met the artist Lilia Lavinskaya, later she will have a son from him Gleb-Nikita Lavinsky (1921-1986).
IN 1926 year, while in New York, Mayakovsky meets Russian emigrant Ellie Jones (Elisabeth Siebert). The romance was short-lived, however, months after the poet's departure, the woman had a daughter – Helen-Patricia, which he saw for the first and last time two years later in France.

Sophia Shamardina, Natalia Bryukhonenko, Tatiana Yakovleva, whom he met in Paris and who will return to Russia, – relationships with these women are also important episodes in Mayakovsky's personal life.
The poet's last romance was with a married woman Veronika Polonskaya. Beautiful actress of the Moscow Art Theater, she was 21 year at the time of their acquaintance, him – 36. Outside – 1929 year. She refused to leave her husband for such a difficult person., like Mayakovsky, then experiencing, by the way, not the easiest period in my life. He gave her jealousy scenes, demanded to leave her husband. After another quarrel, barely Polonskaya walked out the door and left, Mayakovsky shot himself. In a suicide note, he addresses “comrade government” take care of your family: “My family is Lilya Brik, mother, sisters and Veronika Vitoldovna Polonskaya. If you give them a tolerable life, thank you. ". The poet had only 36 years old.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

After Mayakovsky's death, his entire archive passed to Lilya Brik. For a long time, her attempts to publish at least something “from Mayakovsky” failed every time. Then Lilya wrote a letter to. Stalin, and things got off the ground.
In its resolution, printed in the newspaper “true”, Secretary General called Mayakovsky "the best and most talented poet of the Soviet era", after which the poet's work began to be published in large circulations.
Владимир Маяковский (1893-1930), Багдати-Москва

Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966), Odessa-Moscow

фото юной Анны Ахматовой, Анна Ахматова (Горенко)
A brief summary of the main facts from the life of the Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova:
1. Year and place of birth of Anna Akhmatova. A family

Anna Akhmatova (Gorenko) was born 23 June 1889 year near Odessa in a place with a beautiful name Big Fountain. Her childhood was overshadowed by her parents' divorce. It all happened because of the frivolous adventures of the father of the family, Andrey Gorenko, retired navy officer. Anna's mother, Inna Erasmovna, completely devoted herself to children, trying to make amends for her negligent spouse. Every summer she took out the children to improve their health in Sevastopol.
2. Education

When it's time to decide on a place to study, Anna's choice fell on the Smolny Institute. However, unable to withstand strict routines, Akhmatova soon left him, explaining your decision simply: “He loves me a little”. The future poetess continued her education at the Mariinsky gymnasium in Tsarskoe Selo.
Ахматова Анна
3. Anna's feelings and relationships

Anna Andreevna was extremely attractive, slender, dark hair, with gray eyes. She immediately became an object of attention for high school students. But girl, eventually, chose that, who didn't need it and just used it. It was a high school student Vladimir Kutuzov-Golenishchev, future orientalist.
IN 1904 year Akhmatova 14. She took the meeting with Nikolai Gumilyov lightly. And the one, opposite, fell in love at first sight and offered her a hand and a heart at any opportunity.
Гумилев Николай, поэт
Nikolay Gumilev.
4. Nikolay Gumilev and Amedeo Modigliani

Nikolai was from a wealthy family. His parents paid for the publication of the first book of their son's poems, and also provided him with a trip to Europe. However, after being abroad, Nikolai began to yearn for Anna, suffer from unrequited love and even twice tries to commit suicide. Soon, Anna gave her consent to become Gumilyov's wife.
The wedding took place in 1910 year, after which the young poets went to Paris. Once in Montmartre, Akhmatova met the artist Amedeo Modigliani and was fascinated by him. Gumilev did not like the artist, he called him “drunken monster”. After a while, Akhmatova began an affair with an Italian artist and sculptor.
Ахматова Анна (1889-1966), Одесса-Москва
Amadeo Modigliani and one of the many portraits of Akhmatova.
5. Confession

Artist incredibly impressed Anna, but at that time she was loyal to Gumilev. They lived in a small room near Tuchkov Bridge.

Until now, literary scholars argue, were the poets happy with each other? Gumilyov long ignored his wife's poetic gift, invited her to become a dancer, noting her flexibility. But Anna said, what cannot but be a poet, and then Gumilyov gave up and helped publish her first book of poetry “Evening”.

Soon Akhmatova was recognized as her in literary circles at that time, how the marriage of two poets is bursting at the seams. Akhmatova has lovers. Later in emigrant circles there will even be rumors about her connections with Emperor Nicholas II.. Gumilyov also does not differ in the qualities of a decent family man.

Анна Ахматова
6. Change

IN 1912 year Akhmatova and Gumilyov have a son Lev. But a child does not save marriage, and c 1918 year poets disagree. The time has come hard. Akhmatova did not accept the revolution, but she also refused the option to emigrate.

Гумилев и Ахматова с сыном Львом
Gumilyov and Akhmatova with their son Leo
7. Shileiko Vladimir Kazimirovich

Akhmatova is getting married a second time. Gumilyov's mother is still looking after little Leva. The new husband of Anna Andreevna Shileiko Vladimir Kazimirovich, talented scientist, addicted to poetry. But Shileiko also turned out to be a lousy husband, like Gumilyov, escaping from the family then to the war, then to other women.
Шилейко Владимир, ученый, муж Ахматовой
Vladimir Shileiko

Shileiko and Akhmatova lived in poverty, but this did not stop Akhmatova from striking those around her with a regal posture and royal manners. As if she didn't live in some outhouse, but in the palace itself.

Very soon Akhmatova understood, that this marriage is a misunderstanding, but put up with him, as a voluntary punishment. Her husband admired her as a scientist: he knew 52 language, but is it really necessary for family happiness?

Shileiko was terribly jealous and locked the gates, so that Akhmatova does not go anywhere. And she was so thin, that crawled under the gate like a snake. Arthur Lurie was waiting for her on the street, with whom she had a fleeting affair. This gate has survived to this day, but now they are rooted in the ground. IN 1921 year Akhmatova nevertheless decided to divorce Shileiko. And the one, in its turn, loved to tell his students, what he himself threw to Akhmatova.

8. Scary year

1921 years was terrible for Akhmatova. Nikolay Gumilyov was arrested and shot in August. Akhmatova did little to raise her son, but it was she who gave Lyova an important attitude in life: love and respect for the deceased father.
9. Nikolai Punin

Akhmatova begins an exacerbation of tuberculosis. In the hospital, art critic Nikolai Punin visits her and they gradually develop mutual feelings, despite, that Punin is married. Their relationship turned out to be the longest for Akhmatova: 15 years they were close. First as lovers, then as friends. They lived in the Fountain House, whose wing has now become the Akhmatova Museum.
Николай Пунин, муж Ахматовой, искусствовед
Nikolai Punin
10. Son lion

30-e years were marked by new arrests and repression. Osip Mandelstam is taken first, then Punina. Akhmatova breaks down to Moscow and seeks his release. And in 1938 year, when her student son is arrested, no connections help anymore.
Лев Гумилев
Lev Gumilev

The official reason for the arrest was a clash between Lev Nikolaevich and a university teacher. He questioned the route of Nikolai Gumilyov's expedition in Africa. Lev, raised in admiration for the memory of the father, objected to the professor. On the same day he was arrested. For Akhmatova, endless ordeals begin in front of the prison building in the hope of delivering the package.
11. Poverty

Love relationship with Punin ends. Akhmatova is not printed or republished, she lives in poverty and is sick a lot. But her poems go from hand to hand.
IN 1940 year there is hope for the best. A collection of six books has been printed. Is considered, that the books came out thanks to Stalin's whim, once asked with the most innocent air: “And what about Akhmatova, does not write anything?”
каждый из нас

Then there was a stir in the stores, because of Akhmatova's poems literally fought. But that was a short bright streak in the poet's life. IN 1941 year the war begins. Friends help Akhmatova to evacuate from Leningrad to Tashkent even before the famine.
Ахматова в возрасте
12. Post-war time

Lev Gumilyov's exile ends during the war, he volunteers for the front and returns with Victory. Post-war times don't make life easy. IN 1949 Punin was last arrested this year. He is destined to die in prison. It happened in August, almost day to day with the death of Gumilyov. Akhmatova gave the tragic coincidence a sacred meaning: “Every August, Good god, So many holidays and deaths”.
However, November 1949 the year was no better. Lev Gumilyov is sentenced to 10 years of camps. Akhmatova's name is banned until 1954 of the year. Lev Gumilyov was released only in 1956 year.
13. Last years

For Akhmatova, the last decade of her life is the least tragic and very fruitful.. Her books are being printed, in Italy she was awarded a literary prize. Akhmatova receives the honorary title of professor of Oxford and a real mantle. And in Russia she has talented students, such as Joseph Brodsky. Akhmatova died after the fourth heart attack 5 Martha 1966 of the year, being in Moscow, but bequeathed to bury herself near Leningrad.