Extremes of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov: T-15 and democratic values

When Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, scientist, who made a fair share of efforts in the development of domestic science, suddenly began to deal with humanitarian problems, it looked amazing and beautiful at the same time. But when is he, adult and reasonable person, at the time of global political tension, by his criticism of the state and social state of affairs in his homeland, he began to play along in this confrontation with its potential adversary, this somewhat spoiled his initially noble image. The contradictory attitude towards the academician persists to this day.

андрей сахаров
1. Place and years of birth of Andrei Sakharov

Andrey Sakharov was born 21 may 1921 years in Moscow. His father was a professor, physics teacher at the Moscow Pedagogical Institute. Mother, Ekaterina Sofriano, gymnastics teacher, hereditary noblewoman from the genus of Russified Greeks, military daughter.

Детство и молодость Сахарова
Childhood and youth of Sakharov
2. Education and research

Sakharov received his primary education at home, studied at school from the 7th grade. IN 1938 graduated from high school with honors and entered the Physics Department of Moscow University.

IN 1942 year, being in evacuation in Ashgabat, in Turkmenistan, Graduated with honors from Moscow State University. In September 1942 Sakharov was assigned to a military plant in Ulyanovsk, where to 1945 year worked as an engineer-inventor and became the author of a number of inventions of the product control method.

FROM 1943 – 1944 Sakharov did several scientific works on his own and sent them to FIAN.. Lebedev to Igor Tamm. IN 1945 g. he entered graduate school at the Physics Institute. In November 1947 g. defended his thesis. IN 1953 g. defended his doctoral dissertation, and in the same year was elected a member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. IN 1969 Sakharov returned to scientific work at the Physics Institute. There he was recruited to the position of Senior Research Fellow. FROM 1967 by 1980 gg. he posted more 15 scientific works.

3. T-15 supertorpedo

IN 1948 year A. Sakharov was included in the research group for the development of thermonuclear weapons and worked there until 1968 of the year. He was offered his own project of a bomb in the form of layers of deuterium and natural uranium around a conventional atomic charge.. The work ended successfully with the test of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb 12 august 1953 of the year.

Scientists were asked to arm the developed nuclear submarines of the project with giant torpedoes with 100-megaton charges 627 and deliver them to the shores of the United States. Further, according to Sakharov's plan, should have been followed by an explosion off the coast of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, which would cause a huge tsunami and wipe out part of America from the face of the earth. The super torpedo project was named T-15.

However, the Soviet leadership of the Navy categorically refused to use such “inhuman” methods in the fight against the enemy.

Водородная бомба Сахарова
Sakharov's hydrogen bomb
4. Sakharov's wives

The first wife of an academician in 1943 year became Claudia Vikhareva. The couple had three children: Tatyana, Love and Dmitry. IN 1969 year Sakharov's wife died, and he married Elena Bonner. In the past, Bonner was a pediatrician, but then most of her life she played the role of an oppositionist and human rights defender. She directed her husband to the same activity., prominent academician, which he himself confessed, that all decisions in their family are made by the wife: “She is my organizer, my brain center”.

Сахаров и Боннэр
Sakharov and Bonner
5. Sakharov – human rights defender

Since the late 50s, Academician Sakharov begins to engage in human rights activities. IN 1968 year in samizdat his article "Reflections on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom ", which after a while got into the Western press, and Andrei Dmitrievich was removed from secret work and fired from the institute.

Then Academician Sakharov became one of the founders of the Human Rights Committee. He spoke out for the abolition of mortal kani, for the right to emigrate, against compulsory treatment of dissidents in psychiatric hospitals, helped the Crimean Tatars to return to Crimea.

When, seemingly, positive action, Sakharov, he, often coupled with his wife E. Bonner, behaved frankly hooligan defiant, or rather, inadequately. IN 1976 year at the Omsk Regional Court, Sakharov and his wife began to strike at the police, while insulting them and shouting: “There you are, puppies, from the academician”. The court commandant Bonner, who tried to calm down the Sugar couple, was hit in the face.

A similar situation occurred in 1977 g. at the Irkutsk airport, this time in relation to airport workers.

IN 1978 year inherited from the academician and officials of the administration of the Moscow Pedagogical Institute named after. Lenin.

IN 1978 Sakharov again inflicted insults and blows on the police at the building of the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries and at the Lublin District People's Court. Of Moscow.

Крайности Андрея Дмитриевича Сахарова: Т-15 и демократические ценности

In parallel with his human rights activities, Sakharov decided, what has the concept, how best to rebuild Russia. To start, according to the scientist, it is necessary to dismember our state into small independent areas, which then should be placed under the control of the world government. It's necessary, ostensibly for rapprochement with the progressive West.

“Wonderful” Sakharov also made a decision regarding the ecology in the world, dividing the land into “clean”, livable, and “dirty”, where the waste would be collected and the most life-threatening production would be located. Naturally the territory of Russia, according to the plan of the scientist, more suitable for the second category.

Сахаров депутат и правозащитник
Sakharov MP and human rights activist

Sakharov behaved especially peculiarly during that period., when a limited contingent of Soviet troops entered Afghanistan. This decision is still contested., but that's not the point. The bottom line is, that a domestic human rights activist confidently spread rumors in a civilized society, scooped by him from foreign sources, about the state of affairs of our fighters in “hot spot”:

Quote from “Komsomolskaya Pravda” from 2 Martha 1989 of the year: “Recently, the editorial office received a copy of the Canadian newspaper “Ottawa city” , in which the report on the press conference of Academician A. Sakharov and his wife E. Bonner in Canada. Among other things, it was stated, that during the hostilities in Afghanistan, Soviet helicopters repeatedly opened fire on the surrounded Soviet soldiers in order to avoid their surrender. “TVNZ” considered it fundamentally important to get on this matter from Academician A. D. Sakharov's comprehensive explanations. All last night we tried to find him in Canada. Late night we got through to Boston. First question on the phone:
– Is the information of the Canadian newspaper true?, about the content of your speech at the press conference.
– .. I really reminded of the facts, when Soviet helicopters shot the surrounded Soviet soldiers, so that they cannot surrender. These facts, according to the testimony of witnesses, there were. I was based on those testimonies, which I knew.
– How do you know the facts of the destruction of the surrounded Soviet soldiers?? Do you have any proof?
– I was based on reports from the Western press and radio stations. I AM, Unfortunately, now I can not give specific links to those people, in which this can be confirmed on the participants in the war. This claim is based on testimony., it's all, What can I say.

6. Prize

IN 1975 year in the West the book "About the country and the world" was published, in which Sakharov developed ideas, previously expressed in Reflections on Progress, and in the same year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize “for fearless support for the fundamental principles of peace among people” and “for courageous struggle against abuse of power and any form of suppression of human dignity”.

Нобелевская премия Сахарова
Sakharov Nobel Prize
7. Sakharov's three hunger strikes

8 January 1980 Sakharov was deprived of all government awards and prizes, including the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. 22 January he was exiled to g. Bitter (Nizhny Novgorod). Bonner followed..

When the question of Bonner's departure abroad arose after his daughter-in-law, the Soviet leadership denied her this. Honored Academician then went on a hunger strike, дабы вынудить их изменить свое решение. After 17 дней отказа Сахаровым от пищи правительство пошло правозащитникам на уступки, однако в скором времени обвинили Боннэр в «участии в антисоветской деятельности»

Тогда Сахаров решил испытать проверенный уже однажды метод во второй раз, и тем самым добиться отменить столь серьезное обвинение своей супруги. Тема 26 дневной голодовки ученого, угнетаемого советским режимом, широко освещалось в те дни рядом зарубежных СМИ.

Третью голодовку Сахаров объявил сроком на 178 дней. Кремль не стал дожидаться неприятностей и упрятал академика в психбольницу, где его насильно накормили и подлечили. And in 1986 году М. FROM. Горбачев лично позвонил Сахарову и попросил вернуться. Страна готовилась к Перестройке.

8. Поездка в царство демократии

IN 1988 year A. D. Сахаров впервые выехал за рубеж. Приняли его там как высокопоставленного гостя. Большую честь нобелевскому лауреату оказали Р. Рейган, M. Тетчер, F. Миттеран, встретившись с инм. Множество пресс-конференций было проведено академиком для западной аудитории. Тогда же и была рассказана им история о злостных действиях советской летчиков против своих же солдат.

Сахаров и Р. Рейган
Сахаров и Р. Рейган
9. Кончина

В марте 1989 года Сахаров был избран народным депутатом СССР. В декабре этого же года он скончался от сердечного приступа.

Крайности Андрея Дмитриевича Сахарова: Т-15 и демократические ценности