Voloshin Maximilian (1877-1932), Kiev-Koktebel

Волошин Максимилиан
M.A. Волошин. Paris. 1905 year
1. Origin

Voloshin Maximilian was born in Kiev 16 may 1877 in the family of Alexander Maksimovich Kirienko-Voloshin, lawyer by occupation. Max's mother – Elena Ottobaldovna, nee Glaser, was a strong-willed and extraordinary woman. The marriage of the spouses did not last long, and in the future, raising a son, Elena Ottobaldovna will be engaged almost exclusively.

Елена Оттобальдовна Кириенко-Волошина
Elena Ottobaldovna Kiriyenko-Voloshina
2. Voloshin Education

Voloshin received primary education, studying at home with a tutor. The main emphasis in the classroom was on the humanities. Subsequently, he studied, true, without much success in the gymnasiums of Moscow and Feodosia.
IN 1893 the mother of the future poet bought a house in Koktebel, where she moved with her son.

IN 1897 year, losing ground to parents, Maximilian entered Moscow University at the Faculty of Law. Own initiative to study at the Faculty of History and Philology remained unfulfilled.
IN 1899 Voloshin was expelled from the university for a year for participating in "student unrest". However, after the restoration of his studies did not ask, and soon the young man finally said goodbye to the alma mater, which he did not like.

3. Creative life: poetry, translations, painting
Волошин Макс
1896 year.

In 1890, the first poetic experience of Voloshin dates from the year. IN 1895 the first publication of his work in the collection “In Memory. TO. Vinogradova.

Since 1898, while still a university student, and on 1905 gg. Voloshin traveled a lot (“years of wandering”). Not having a surplus of funds, he often walked, stayed overnight in shelters, and thus explored a number of European states (Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Greece). Voloshin spent a month and a half in Central Asia.

Period from 1905 g. by 1912 the poet will call later “years of wandering”. At this time, he will seek meanings in Buddhism, Catholicism, carried away by occultism, to be adopted in Paris by Masons. IN 1914 year he will be interested in the ideas of anthroposophy.

Волошин Максимилиан

Without lingering for a long time in one place, Волошин, Nevertheless, was an active participant in the literary life of Russia. IN 1907 g. poet settled in Koktebel, there he set about preparing a cycle “Cimmerian Twilight”. He translates the poetry of Paul Verlaine from French into Russian, Henri de Rainier, Jose Maria de Heredia, Stefana Malllarme, Emil Verharn and Prose Villiers de Lille Adana, Paul Claudel, Paul de Saint Victor.
IN 1910 the first collection of Voloshin's poems was published. At the same time, he collaborates with the journal of the Symbolists “Libra” and acmeists “Apollo”, increasingly gaining credibility in the writing community

Крымский пейзаж 1925., Волошин М.
Crimean landscape 1925

In January 1913 years in the Tretyakov Gallery was subjected to an act of vandalism picture and. Repin “Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan”. This case has stirred society. Voloshin also did not stand aside. 13 February, he gave a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum "On the artistic value of the affected painting Repin", the essence of which boiled down to, that the reason and aggressive act of the vandal was the form and content of Repin’s canvas. The lecture by the audience was mixed, some time Voloshin’s publications were boycotted by publishers.

One year later, in 1914 g., Voloshin's book on culture published “Liki creations”. IN 1915 g. – poem-reaction to military events in the world – "Burning the year 1915» (“In the year of the burning world of 1915”). Voloshin designated his anti-war position, by writing a letter to the Minister of War, in which he refused to serve in the tsarist army and participate "in a bloody massacre".

Карадаг в облаках
Karadag in the clouds
Луна восходит
Moon rises

In the same years, the poet was busy with watercolor painting.. The main theme of his work will be the Cimmerian landscape. His watercolors Voloshin, like japanese masters, signed with lines from his own poems. With a number of paintings, he took part in exhibitions “World of Art”.
Voloshin-artist is usually attributed to “Cimmerian School of Painting”, along with Aivazovsky, Kuinji et al. His watercolors can be found in the Tretyakov Gallery, as well as in some provincial museums.

5. Cherubina de Gabriac. Гумилев, duel

Cherubina de Gabriac – mysterious poetess, represented in the Russian cultural society in 1909 year. 9 months the public did not suspect, what is behind this name is an unknown teacher Elizabeth Dmitrieva, and this character arose with the light hand of Max Voloshin, at that time already famous poet.

Черубина да Габриак, Дмитриева Е.
E. Dmitrieva

I met Dmitrieva Voloshin at the beginning 1909 of the year. Shortly before this Elizabeth, ugly girl, but undeniably talented and interesting in its own way, attracted by her extraordinary poet N. Gumileva. Between them, a very difficult relationship, culminating in a summer trip to Koktebel, where the center of attraction of people of art then was the house of Max Voloshin.

Voloshin was older than Dmitrieva by 10 years old, wiser and more experienced. Eventually, the girl preferred him to Gumilev. The rejected poet left Crimea, Dmitrieva stayed until the fall. It was during this period of time that the beauty Cherubina de Gabriak was born, talented young poetess. 18-summer catholic, strictly educated in the monastery. Spanish father, Russian by mother, she writes poetry, who would like to publish in a magazine “Apollo”, but under the watchful eye of a father, she allegedly cannot communicate directly with the editor of the magazine Sergey Makovsky, and therefore it is possible only through correspondence.

Черубина, Дмитриева Е.
Dmitrieva in Koktebel

Why did you need this hoax? The reason is – ugliness Dmitrieva. There is an opinion, that Makovsky, magazine editor “Apollo”, who was preparing to print not without Voloshin’s participation, being an esthete would hardly agree to deal with an outwardly unappealing, even talented, young lady. This did not fit into the aristocratic concept of the magazine..

The draw was a success. Intrigued by exquisite letters of a stranger with a difficult fate, Makovsky was seriously interested in the poetess. Dmitrieva and Voloshin realized, that sooner or later it will be necessary to put an end to this game, because. the hype around Cherubin only grew and the girl won’t be able to remain faceless for a long time.

Having spoken to the poet-translator Johann von Gunther about the true face, hiding behind Cherubin’s mask, Dmitrieva marked the beginning of the end of mystification. That, in its turn, shared information with Mikhail Kuzmin, and then editor Makovsky found out about everything, until recently did not believe that, that he was played.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель
Gumilev N. and Voloshin M.

Learned about a bad joke and n. Гумилев. When the masks were reset, he publicly threw Dmitrieva: “You were my lover, they will not marry such. Волошин, upon learning of an insult to Elizabeth, also publicly slapped a poet who was once offended by a girl. A duel has been assigned, both poets were safe and sound, but this nasty episode has been talked about for a long time. The story invented by Voloshin and Dmitrieva with Cherubina, started with a simple draw, ended scandalously and awkwardly.

6. Over the fight
Волошин Максимилиан в центре
Voloshin in the center

Years of revolution and civil war Voloshin chose to stay at home. He said: “When a mother is sick, her children stay with her”. Becoming a fight, he fought hard for “senseless destruction” of monuments, of books, people. So, in 1918 g. his care saved the estate E from defeat. AND. Jung, where many works of art were kept, rare library.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель

Summer 1919 years Voloshin rescued from the White Guard lynch general N. AND. Of Marx, prominent paleographer, compiled “Legends of Crimea”, who in the past dealt with the Bolsheviks. In May 1920 of the year, when the underground Bolshevik congress was opened by white counterintelligence, gathered in Koktebel, one of the delegates found shelter and protection in Voloshin’s house. In late July, Maximilian Alexandrovich helped the liberation of the poet O.. E. Mandelstam, arrested by the White Guards.

7. Voloshin about the Crimea

Voloshin's attitude to Crimea, as part of the Russian state, can be understood from the letter to A. Petrova, written 10 may 1918 of the year: “Crimea is too little Russia, and in essence, almost nothing has seen evil from the Russian conquest over the past century and a half. It cannot be independent, since with a cash of more than twelve nationalities, its inhabiting, and not nests, and in the layer, he is not able to create any state. He needs a "conqueror". For Crimea, as for the country, it is beneficial to be directly connected with Germany in the next era (not with Ukraine and not with Austria). [… The psychological question is much more complicated., for us Russians, connected by all the roots of his soul with Cimmeria. Our physical - earthly homeland is now surgically separated from the homeland of spiritual Holy Russia)”.

дом М. Волошина в Крыму
house M. Voloshina in Crimea
8. Personal life

IN 1906 Voloshin married the artist Sabashnikova Margarita (Cupid, Margory) This alliance did not last long., Sabashnikova left Max for the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov and his wife Lydia, deciding to form a new type of family with them.

Маргоря, Маргарита Сабашникова.
Margory, Margarita Sabashnikova.

IN 1922 year, when the famine began in Crimea, Voloshin hired a paramedic from the neighboring village of Zabolotskaya Marusya to care for his elderly mother. So, Maroussia and remained in the house of the poet as a wife, mistresses of his house.

Волошин Макс с супругой Марией Степановной
Voloshin Max with his wife Maria Stepanovna

Max Voloshin Died 11 august 1932 of the year, he was only 55 years old. He was buried on the hill of Kuchuk-Enishar, bounding Koktebel left, just like Karadag limits it to the right. Maria Stepanovna managed to save the house of the poet, without breaking his orders – its doors were still wide open for poets, writers, artists, and just wanderers.

Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель
Волошин Максимилиан (1877-1932), Киев-Коктебель

Russian women artists 19-20 in. Part 1.

Famous Russian women artists 19 – start 20 centuries compared with men a little. Some of them are widely known, but they know about the majority, mostly, connoisseurs or simply lovers of painting.

1. Pollenova Elena
русские женщины-художницы
Elena Polenova, the first Russian illustrator of children's books

Polenova Elena Dmitrievna, sister of the Russian painter Polenov Vasily Dmitrievich, the author of the famous painting “Moscow courtyard”. The artist was born in November 1850 years in St. Petersburg. An unusually talented woman. The impetus for the development of her artistic skills was her arrival in Abramtsevo, to the estate of Savva Mamontov. Exactly at “Abramtsevo circle” surrounded by brilliant artists of that time, Elena Dmitrievna painted many landscapes. She also showed herself as a costume designer there., after all, known, Savva Ivanovich staged performances, for the preparation of which he involved all his wards.
Under the influence of Vasnetsov, Polenov is fond of everything, what is connected with the Russian people. Collects antiquities, fixes vintage ornaments on a sheet of paper, which will then be skillfully used in woodcarving. Furniture designed by Elena Dmitrievna was in great demand.

And perhaps, Polenova's greatest contribution to the development of Russian art was her attention to, what Russian children read, what books are they brought up on. It was Elena Polenova who first took up the illustration of Russian folk tales. Before that, children read well-illustrated foreign fairy tales..

2. Bashkirtseva Maria
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.

Bashkirtseva Maria Konstantinovna born in 1858 year in Poltava province, then part of the Russian Empire. The girl lived most of her short life with her mother and relatives in France.. Maria left her mark not only in painting, but also in literature – famous “Diary” brought Bashkirtseva special popularity.

Башкирцева М. В студии. Мастерская Жюлиана, 1881
Bashkirtseva M. In a studio. Julian's workshop, 1881
3. Kruglikova Elizaveta
Нестеров М. Портрет Кругликовой Е. С., 1938 г.
Nesterov M. Portrait of Kruglikova E. FROM., 1938 g.

Kruglikova Elizaveta Sergeevna was born in 1865 year in St. Petersburg. After studying as a volunteer at the Moscow School of Painting, sculpture and architecture, Elizaveta Sergeevna went to Paris, where she attended a private academy of arts. Kruglikova received the greatest popularity as an etcher and master of the silhouette.

 Елизавета Кругликова. Автопортрет, 1910.
Elizaveta Kruglikova. Self-portrait, 1910.
4. Junker-Kramskaya Sofia
Крамской И. Н. Портрет дочери.
Kramskoy I. N. Daughter's portrait.

Yunker-Kramskaya Sofya Ivanovna was born in 1867 year in the family of a Wanderer artist AND. N. Kramsky. Sofya Ivanovna has established herself as an excellent portrait painter, however, the years of the revolution did not spare her. The authorities questioned Kramskoy's trustworthiness and the artist was sent into exile in Siberia. Many works by Kramskoy have been lost by now for various reasons. .

Спящая, 1880-1890 гг.
Sleeping, 1880-1890 gg.
5. Yakunchikova-Weber Maria
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.
Yakunchikova-Weber M. IN.

Maria Vasilievna Yakunchikova was born in 1870 year in a Moscow merchant family. She was a relative by her mother FROM. AND. Mamontova. Surrounded by an atmosphere of creativity since childhood, Maria Vasilievna also could not help but get carried away with painting. However, in 1888 year the artist was diagnosed with tuberculosis, in 1902 she passed away, leaving behind a number of outstanding works of art.

Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.
Avenue in the Bois de Boulogne”, oil on board
Страх. 1893-1895
Fear. 1893-1895
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.