TO 1970 year k / v them. Timiryazeva was average in the area, ie. fulfilled all plans, got good harvests (considering the soil cadastre) agricultural crops only due to the high organization of labor (correct sowing dates, care, etc., cleaning time and quality of work performed). The state did not stand aside, adjusting prices for agricultural products. It was profitable to sow all crops, especially sugar beets and coriander(kinzu). Material interest in beets was raised (she was on the farm 900 ga).
The law on pensions of the rural population came into force in 1967 year (and the pension was, ashamed to say, from 9-30 rub.). Until this year, the collective farmer did not have a passport, did not receive a pension, etc., ie. was a "serf". The number of beet growers has decreased(It was 450 person, and care 150 person). So they gave 900 him on 150 person. It's over 6 ha per person, which led to a decrease in yield.
Used to get up to 35 tons per hectare of beets, but began to receive 11-15 tons. It was forbidden to reduce the area under crops, up to dismissal. It took three years to prove, that the increase in the load on the beet maker after 2,5-3 ha sharply reduced the harvest. I had to divide the area under beets into all able-bodied women and men (midwife, cattlemen, tractor drivers, the entire administration, etc.). Beet-growers were left with 3 hectare, the rest, starting with the chairman, by 2 hectare. It was difficult to work. Dismantling and weeding of beets was carried out manually. Crawled on your knees. It was especially difficult for men to sort out beets., ie. "Cancer" crawled 22 kilometers per hectare.
IN 1970 year I was assigned 2 hectare of beets. I got 400 kg of sugar, large cash bonus from the state. And the tractor drivers, who weeded, dismantled, and processed sugar beets, received from 800 kg to 1,2 tons of sugar and good extra pay. Everyone working on beets got a good supplement. The collective farm sold to the state on average annually from 12 to 18 thousand. tons of sugar beet. Produced from our beets (the smallest sugar yield 10%, biological outlet 24%, and the technological 15%) by 1000-1800 tons of pure sugar. 10%-15% sugar got the farm for free, and distributed among the collective farmers according to the labor expended. Beet has become a very profitable agricultural crop for the collective farm.
The super crop was coriander. The collective farm had a sowing plan 300 ga. We sowed 400-500 ga. One kg of coriander (cilantro) cost about 4 rubles, and if the first reproduction is up to 5-7 rubles, and wheat was only for 100 Kg 7-8 rub. Coriander harvest, under favorable conditions, gave up to 5-6 centners per hectare.
Prior to the specialization of the collective farm in sheep breeding in 1971 coriander was sown in a wide-row way with beet planters (by 45 cm between rows), and when the sheep appeared, they began to sow coriander – continuous method with grain seeders. Earlier, coriander was littered with grass and gave a low yield. Many women could not be sent to weed just because, that after her they got sick with allergies (swollen legs and face).
Once a PO-2 plane arrived at the collective farm (AN-2) and two pilots on it. I do not remember the last name, and the name of the commander is Nikolai. He tells me: "Find, something to drink, and tomorrow come with your son to the collective farm airfield ". It was early June. That's exactly what I did. They drank all night, and when I arrived at five o'clock, the pilot was already ready to fly. The co-pilot was drunk and did not show up. We climbed into the cockpit. I sat in the co-pilot's seat, and the son is between us. Nikolay lifted the plane, and then he says: "Let's fly alone". And I had to fly through the fields of the collective farm.
It turned out to see everything from above: crop flaws, roads, etc. The most important thing – private cattle herders themselves slept on the edge of the field, and cattle (200 heads) wandered, destroying winter wheat. And nearby is the same picture with collective farm sheep. Shepherds were sleeping, and the sheep scattered across the coriander crops. When the plane landed, I passed control to Nikolai. I took my son home, and he went with the driver to the shepherds. How they slept, so they sleep. Woke up, gave a thrash. Came to the shepherds, same. Woke them up and began to scold. And they tell me: Look, like sheep weeding coriander ".
Indeed I began to watch sheep, what do they eat. It turns out, they eat all the weed (osot, rape, wheatgrass, etc.), but don't touch the coriander (from him they "snort"). And since then, the manual labor of weeding has been replaced by sheep, and there were already them on the collective farm 12 thousand (12 flock of a thousand heads). Son asked: "Like an airplane?" He replied: "It's better to ride on the Volga."
1970 the year was special for the communists - the 100th anniversary of the birth of V.I.. Lenin. Therefore, a solemn Party-Economic Active was held in the district., dedicated to a round date.
Awarded medals to leaders and veterans of communists in the district. "For Valiant Labor" in honor of Lenin's anniversary. Everyone is rewarded (although I myself spent with the Secretary of the Party Committee Eliseev I.P.. extended party meeting on the collective farm, where I was instructed to reward the best collective farmers, including my father Ivan Ivanovich Kushchenko. And two chairmen me and Sedykh V. N. from the collective farm "May Day" the village of Konshino was not awarded. Apparently someone forgot. All chairmen and directors of state farms were awarded, but we are not.
Vasily Antonovich and I went to Ivan Petrovich Predrik and say: “And we were forgotten! Why? After all, we worked for almost ten years!"And he answers: “Why were you not awarded? Then let me reward you, and you will be solemnly presented with the award ". Thanks to Vasily Antonovich for this, he insisted: let's go, says "to the Predrick". Thanks to him, I still use some kind of privilege (2006 g.)
TO 1975 year on the collective farm was built everything for the production, cultural, educational and medical activities. The central collective farm was formed - the Board of the collective farm (two-story building, where the Village Council was located, medical center and post office). And also a good building was given over to the automatic telephone exchange. Garages were built, repair shops, fire station, parking yard for agricultural equipment (for which they received the "Moskvich" award), mechanized grain grain with warehouses and barns, carpentry workshop with sawmill, refueling with dispensers, three deep wells with two water towers (Rozhnovsky).
A second was added to the old school, two-story building, coal-fired boiler house. All the brigades have clubs built, including the central big club. A sheep complex was built on 12 thousand ewes. it 10 shepherd – 100 m on 18 m, by 1200 heads each. In Koptsevo(brigade 3) a mechanized barn for 200 cows was built. An asphalt road was built at 8 km Saprykino-Prokudino. Bridge over the Dubyanka river. Pond on 40 hectares with water discharge, where a bottle of vodka is laid at a depth under the concrete (1970 g.)
IN 1975 a monument to those who died in the Great Patriotic War with a bas-relief of the Hero of the Soviet Union Zhulov was erected to mark the thirtieth anniversary of victory, native of the village of Dubyanka. His family was repressed in 1930 year and after was in g. Grozny(Chechnya). We found his family. His mother was still alive, who was present with children at the opening of the monument. The collective farm did everything, to keep the family happy, leaving the homeland of ancestors. The opening of the monument was filmed by the projectionist Dmitry Eliseev (Karpak). I would like to see these unique footage.
Assistance was provided to needy collective farmers in the acquisition of building materials (slate, brick, etc.). Already in 1973 there were no houses in a year, covered with thatch. Only in the village of Durnevo, two old grandmothers refused to cover their houses with slate, said, that will live out their days, how the ancestors lived.
Already in 1973 from the collective farm (the central manor) you could leave in any weather because. once a day, buses from g. Gubkin and G.. Stary Oskol.
IN 1975 year, in the garden planted in honor of the 100th anniversary of B. AND. Lenin, farmsteads were cut. The collective farm was building housing (finnish houses), inspiring young families. Then it was already built 15 such houses.
It was planned in the future to build a central dining room with a boiler room (on coal), to which the board building was supposed to be connected, club, etc. objects. The question was raised about building a school with a boarding school behind the monument to the victims, located near the mechano– transport workshop (garage) closer to the Deminsky forest.
I remember 1973 year. Then the weather allowed to grow a good harvest. It rained right for the plants (as they say, on schedule). They did not stop even on the eve of cleaning. All bread and grains were already ready for harvest, but everything was tumbled down as a solid "carpet" on the ground.
Thanks to our combine operators, E.D. Dolzhenkov., Bredikhin MD, Yakovlev EM. and Yakovleva Valentina, Kolesnikov NI. etc. which, decided to cut out a part of the header of the combine and put the rear wheels from the GAZ-52. First, windrows were collected from the fields, and then on sunny days the grain was milled and poured into the sheepfold, and there it was dried. The collective farm that removed the grain, saved. And all the collective farms of the region drove the grain and it sprouted on the vine.
It rained throughout the harvesting period of all crops. I had to harvest sunflowers in winter in the snow. The collective farm was removed and owed to the state (if my memory does not fail me) something about 4.5 rubles, although the crop area was 300 ga. The brigades began to harvest sugar beets 17 august, although the Chaplyzhensky beet station did not accept sugar beets, at the direction of the RK KPSS Gubkinsky region. Spoke, let it grow up until September 5th, get some sugar.
To 5 September the weather was good, and we managed to remove 25% squares. For this early cleaning, he was reprimanded by the RK KPSS "for arbitrariness". FROM 5 September weather turned bad, first frost came to minus 5 degrees, then heavy rains started.
The combines were not perfect (SKG-3 beet harvester, L-shaped, three-stranded). I personally did not let you stop, if there was at least some opportunity to work. There were 9 PCS. by 3 in each brigade. They 50% they dug in the beets and put them in small piles for me. There was always a work front (doctors, nurses, workers, to our beet growers, everyone working on beets).
In the field – cold. Nurses, the doctors were lightly dressed – froze. They were taken tea, to keep people warm. We worked with people during the day, and in the evening we went to the bureau in the district (30 km to Gubkin, almost every day). They offered the Regional Committee to stop harvesting beets because. dies in cohorts at beet stations and factories. Not, we will clean up. A helicopter was patrolling in the sky for observation.
One evening at the Bureau of the RK KPSS, the first secretary of the Regional Committee Trunov M. P. asks me: “Where did you work today?, of beets?"I answered him, where was. But with a remark, that the helicopter did not fly over our beets, and the neighboring collective farm. He tells me angrily: "Tomorrow at 10 hours be in that place ". Then he apologized.
Cleaning lasted until February 1974 of the year. And almost all the beets died. The Krivetsky plant of the Kursk region was built by the Belgians, and he took beets with tops. The Belgians still worked for three years after launch. Huge silos were filled with quality granulated sugar. In the sugar beet harvest season 1973 the year the Belgians left. And so they began to take frozen beets, and the sugar in the silos "flowed" and turned into a huge lump. Everything was done "in Russian" and then the silo was blown up.
We will find out, that our regional committee administration, especially the first secretary should receive the star of the Hero of Socialist Labor. He arrived in Moscow, and he L. AND. Brezhnev says: "Go Michael and take away the sugar beets". And so they cleaned up until February. Many chairmen and directors have been fired, including the threat above me.
1973 the year was the year of checking the heads of all farms in the Belgorod region. Work in difficult climatic conditions. I heard, that was nominated for some kind of award, but just like M.P. Trunov. not received. Although the yield of all agricultural crops was the highest in the region, and almost all crops were removed and preserved. But someone blocked this initiative.
The best years of my life have passed for me in the Belgorod region. He constantly tried to do good for the people of the collective farm, and now in 2007 I can't help but remember wonderful people, with whom I have worked for about twenty years. These people worked, dreamed of a good life, and did everything to bring this life closer. Believed in Communism, which was inspired to us. How we were all fooled…
Having a higher education, I'm in 1968 year thought: how poor they live in the villages of our country (the USSR) and how farmers and workers live in the USA? Poorer than us! It turned out, what is this nonsense, when I bought the book at the bazaar in Stary Oskol Smelyakov "Business America" (from under the floor) and read.
Communism was built before the first secretary of the Regional Committee and his entourage. He made his way to the district committee (first secretary). But he was quickly eliminated, because it was immediately noticeable, how does the 1st secretary of the district committee behave. He was closer to the working people.
The first person, with whom I had to work on the farm was my deputy Malakhov Stepan Firsorovich. He was engaged in the electrification of the collective farm. The man is terminally ill (heart), finished the electrification of his native village Malakhovo and died. Сколько нервов и здоровья было потрачено чтобы закончить начатое дело.
Богданов Андрей Семенович (помощник бригадира по сельхоз технике), Богданов Василий Тихонович (бригадир), Тетеров Иван Артамонович(бригадир), Бредихин Иван Семенович (бригадир), Бредихин Николай Михайлович (бригадир), Васютин Михаил Антонович (бригадир), Щербачев Василий Андреевич (помощник бригадира по с/х технике), Usachev Vasily Egorovich (auto mechanic), Eliseev Pavel Sergeevich, Rogozina Valentina Ivanovna, school director Miroshnikov Vasily Andreevich, teachers Zakharov K. D., Popkova M.A., Kuliginy M.D.. и Е.И., Сдержиков Н.И и М.Т., Монакова Е. AND., столяра Поликашин Федор и Анисякин Николай.
Все они замечательные люди. Я в своей работе старался не оскорблять, не унижать их достоинства. Поэтому все они верили мне, и я их не обманывал и не подводил. Пообщавшись со мной, человек уходил от меня довольный, даже иногда не получая того, зачем пришел. Но если я обещал что-то, то обязательно выполнял.
Благодаря добрым отношениям с руководителями предприятий и организаций Губкинского района, to me, как председателю колхоза, было легко выполнить производственный объем главных работ для колхоза, such as the: вывозка зерна, свеклы и др. с/х работ, постройка зданий и сооружений. Я не имел дефицита ни в транспорте, ни в строительных материалах, because. колхозу всегда оказывали помощь.
Соловьев Михаил Иванович начальник АТХ-14, Филатов Василий Иванович начальник АТХ Лебединского рудника, начальник ЖСК дорцеха – Шипановский, начальник ГДМ рудника Поддубный Н., директор Губкинского кирпичного завода. Кущенко Иван Егорович, заместитель директора Старо-Оскольского цементного завода Орехов (почти ежемесячно колхозники сметали двор цементного завода, вывозя для строительства 5-10 тонн бесплатного цемента благодаря ему). Цементный завод снимал фильтры с печей, чтобы выполнить план, а мы сметали выхлопы высокой марки цемента. Начальник Лебединского Промстрой-2 Туренко Иван Федорович, управляющий «Треста КМА-рудстрой Рубан, управляющий Скороднянской СХТ Симаненко М.И, и многие другие. Спасибо всем им.
Настал драматический для меня и моей семьи 1978 year. Я ушел из семьи. Продолжение домашней жизни было невозможно из-за двух случаев подсыпки тертого стекла в еду. Меня полгода Администрация района не могла исключить из колхоза из-за того, что я разошелся с женой и получил на бюро РК КПСС строгий выговор с занесением в учетную карточку (которую берегу). Колхозники не хотели собираться на собрание. Они говорили: «Пусть работает, это его личная жизнь». В конце-концов, я их уговорил.
Я своим поведением сам порушил бразды правления народом. Появились другие мнения. Как и до меня, председателя стали выбирать по родству (клановость) из местных кадров. Когда я руководил, у меня не было «любимчиков». Кадры подбирались по способности руководить тем или иным участком в колхозном производстве. Преданность выявлялась по труду, а не по родству, поэтому с 1979-2000г. four collective farm chairmen were replaced.
For twenty years I had to work, and after me, for the same period, the chairmen changed every 5 years old. Saprykin V. P., Zinoviev A. Н., Zakharov, последнего городского не запомнил. Все местные продвигали своих. Материально обеспечивались, воровали. Меня удивил Захаров сын Ивана-Большевика. Кличка была эта распространенная. «Прихватизировал» председательский дом с садом, который был построен в период работы моей в колхозе.
Начал искать работу в Белгородской области, в своем районе -Губкинском, по специальности агроном. Там отказали «нам запретили Вас принимать на работу». Потом снялся с партучета и места жительства и со студенческим чемоданом и сберкнижкой в 1360 рублей прибыл на Кавказ на свою родину, в родительский дом.
Прихожу в Моздокский РК КПСС, встретил Княжнина первого секретаря РК КПСС. He tells me: «Ну что же казачек прибыл на свою родину. Может тебе помочь устроится на работу? Такие кадры нам нужны». Ответ мой: «Мне Соловьев Н. AND. (председатель колхоза «40 лет Октября») пообещал определить на работу». А выговор с личным делом был уже в Моздокском РК КПСС «За аморальное поведение».
Женился первый раз 1957. Развелся в 1958 году по решению суда, «как непригодный к половой жизни». IN 1979 году выговор «за аморальное поведение». Выросли у меня с Татьяной Филипповной двое детей. Они сами, без моей поддержки, вышли в люди. Хотя материальная помощь до 18 лет им шла через алименты – 33% от моего заработка. От алиментов я не бегал и не скрывался. Жизнь очень сложная штука. Было всем трудно. Сам больно переживал свою трагедию (полный износ на работе, кризис среднего возраста и неготовность к нему, начало кризиса страны ).
Жизнь в станице Павлодольской на Кавказе, начал, in fact, с чистого листа как материально (бедно), так и морально. У моей новой спутницы – Валентины родилась от меня дочь Саша в 1978 year. In January 1979 был принят в члены колхоза «40 лет Октября» на должность заведующего комплекса крупного рогатого скота на 1000 голов коров и 1300 голов молодняка. Оплата в 180 рублей в месяц.
Освоился быстро, принял все поголовье и имущество, прочитал большое количество нашей и зарубежной литературы по животноводству. Особенно по дойному стаду. Began practical work to improve the organization of labor at the complex. Came to work earlier than others, left later. Everything began to gradually recover. I was only 46 years.
Сейчас в Моздокском районе все должности заняты осетинами. Редко встречаются русские, кумыки, армяне, кабардинцы и другие национальности. Now (2004 g.) назревает опять конфликт между Южной Осетией и грузинами. Обратно могут появиться беженцы, и их будут расселять в Моздокском районе, как было в 1992 year. Русским необходимо в будущем быть вместе с осетинами. Этот народ по вере и духу самый близкий к русским. Но и руководству Алании в данный момент по кадрам должно быть более справедливым. И по поводу переселения осетин в Моздокский район – надо быть осторожным. Может получиться перегиб. Может все взорваться.