“Russian women artists” – вопрос-ответ

Когда ошибатьсяполезно!

Выбирайте из списка ответ и проверяйте свои знания.

1. Кто эта прекрасная дама на фото? Подсказка: ее отец был автором учебника по математике, по которому отучилось не одно поколение русских людей. However, и супруг художницы принадлежал к ученым мужам математической науки.

"Русские женщины-художницы" - вопрос-ответ

Неправильный ответ: несчастная Мария выглядела So.

Неправильный ответ: молодость Натальи Сергеевны пришлась на другой фасон шляпок.

Правильный ответ: Elena Andreevna Kiseleva, портретистка, дочь математика А. P. Kiseleva.

2. Долгое время имя этой художницы из Белгородского уезда в России было не известно. Только в 1960-х годах из Франции к нам были доставлены ее работы, которые быстро полюбились нашей публике: нежные, утонченные образы стали визитной карточкой портретистки. О ком идет речь?

Автопортрет. 1956.
Self-portrait. 1956.

Not. Заслуги этой замечательной художницы связаны, first of all, с ее работой на ситценабивной фабрике в Москве, где она создавала первые образцы отечественной ткани с орнаментом.

Правильный ответ: Серебрякову невозможно ни с кем спутать.

Неправильный ответ: Александра Егоровна жила в другой временной промежуток

3. Стараниями этой художницы Владимир Маяковский в 1910 году стал обучаться живописи.

"Русские женщины-художницы" - вопрос-ответ

Неверно. Вера Михайловна известна подробностями своей жизни несколько иного характера.

Верно. Именно так звали ту художницу, что оказала влияние на будущего поэта.

Not, ответ неверный.

4. Эта художница стала первым иллюстратором детских книг в России.

русские женщины-художницы
Первый русский иллюстратор детских книг

Верно! Елена Дмитриевна была разносторонне развитой личностью.

Неверно. Дочь знаменитого художника зарекомендовала себя хорошей портретисткой, но среди ее работ не было иллюстраций к книгам.

Ответ неверный.

5. Вместе с супругом эта художница положила начало такому направлению в живописи, как лучизм. Ее фамилия?

Наталья гончарова, художник

Неверный ответ.

Yes. Ее супруг Михаил Ларионов создатель собственного стиля в живописи - лучизма.

Неверно. Мария хотя и оставила после себя мемуары с описаниями своих отношений с мужчинами, однако замуж так и не вышла.

Maria Bashkirtseva. Looking for glory. Part 2.

“My diary – the most useful and most instructive of all, what happened, is and will be written! It's all a woman, with all your thoughts and hopes, disappointments, with all its bad and good sides, with sorrows and joys. I'm not quite a woman yet, but i will be her. You can follow me from childhood to death. And human life, entire life, as it is, without any disguise and embellishment, – always a great and interesting thing ”.
(Maria Bashkirtseva. Diary entry from 14 July 1874 of the year.
Actually, entry from 14 July 1875 of the year).

Фото М. Башкирцевой в костюме
UNSPECIFIED – CIRCA 1880: Marie Bashkirtseff (1860-1884), Russian painter and writer. (Photo by Harlingue/Roger Viollet via Getty Images)


The atmosphere on the love front

– Maria Bashkirtseva's diary is full of stories about men, for which she had romantic feelings, and who literally threw anonymous letters. All characters are hidden behind initials, but it was still possible to establish their belonging to this or that person, yet again, thanks to unreleased recordings. Mary's choice of object for love interest has always been typical: spoiled, arrogant aristocrat, certainly rich and well-placed. Get the power, influence, popularity due to her husband's position was included in Bashkirtseva's long-term plans. But somehow it didn’t always work out with grooms and marriage., Maria died like a spinster (26 years in 19 in. – this is a considerable age for a woman).

– The first, young, and therefore, maybe, the brightest love of Mary was her infatuation with the English aristocrat Duke of Hamilton and Brandon.

” Musya saw him back in Baden in 1870 year, then often met on the boardwalk in Nice, where did they go to 1871 year after the end of the Franco-Prussian war. It was kra-
gray, a little plump youth with copper hair and a thin mustache, as it seems to her, similar to Apollo Belvedere, capricious, fat and cruel, how not-
ron. But simply redhead (Remember “And London is red…”By Prince Vyazemsky?), cocky and arrogant Anglo-Saxon. “His confidence always has something victorious in it”, – notes Maria Bashkirtseva”. Александров А. “The true life of Mademoiselle Bashkirtseva”.

14-year old Mary never had a chance to become a duchess, and she understands it, but still hopes for something, dreaming:

” I only recognize the love of such men, like Hamilton, because they know a lot and have seen a lot. A boy of twenty two loves, like a woman. I would be proud, if just such a man loved me, who is skilled in love. And if he falls in love, then forever. Such men have experienced everything, went through all, and in the end they look for their
harbor. I love Hamilton and wish him even more because, that he will be able to appreciate my love. Because he lived "”. Unpublished, 21 July 1873 of the year.

Фото М. Башкирцевой с муз. инструментом
UNSPECIFIED – CIRCA 1880: Marie Bashkirtseff (1860-1884), Russian painter and writer. (Photo by Harlingue/Roger Viollet via Getty Images)

Duke, eventually, married another, Maria suffers, but soon a new object for romantic relationships appears in her life – Emile d'Audiffre. He is rich and prone to daring., what is so pleasant about the men of young Bashkirtseva. Her hopes, that with the help of Emil she and her family will enter high society did not come true. The wishes of relatives to marry Mary to Odiffra were also not destined to come true. It was at that time that Bashkirtseva began to think about the unfair structure of society., from a gender perspective:

“A man can afford everything, and then he gets married, and everyone thinks it is quite natural. But if a woman dares to do a little thing, I'm not talking, so that everything, they start to attack her. But why so? Because, will tell me, you are still a child and do not understand anything, in men it is…, and for women it is… completely different. I AM
I understand that perfectly, maybe children, but often they do not exist, there is only… Man – selfish, it scatters in all directions, and then he takes the whole woman and wants, what-
would she be satisfied with his remains, to love his worn out skeleton, his tainted character, his tired face!.. I don't judge carnal pleasures, but need, what-
everything would be decent, to “eat only, when hungry…"And they consider females to be women, talk to them, spend time with them, and they deceive them, mock them, pathetic men… how? They can't stand, if their wives have cavaliers, and they themselves quite calmly talk about the lovers of their mistresses!"From the unpublished diary of M. Bashkirtseva, entry from 27 september 1875 of the year.

М. Башкирцева, "Читающая девушка у водопада"
M. Bashkirtseva, Girl reading at the waterfall

– Then the nephew of Cardinal Pietro Antonelli appeared in the life of Mary, with whom the marriage was also upset. Then there was a romantic relationship with Count Alexander Larderel (there is no entry about him in the published diary), Paul de Cassagnac and during her stay in Russia she was surrounded by Poltava suitors (“Poltava hippos”). In other words, Bashkirtseva did not experience a shortage of men in her environment, but nothing serious came of it. Then Maria, what is called, plunges head into work.

Башкирцева М. Зонтик. 1883
Bashkirtseva M. Umbrella. 1883
Maria Bashkirtseva – genius of young talent, or it's all about connections?

– Was Maria Bashkirtseva talented, how to talk about her, and if yes, what exactly? Maria drew since childhood, but seriously started in 19 years old, enrolled in the only drawing school in France, where women could study – Julian Academy:

My immature talents, my hopes, my habits, my whims will be funny at nineteen. Begin painting at nineteen, striving to do everything earlier and
better than others! Some cheat others, I deceived myself ". Diary entry from 29 august 1877 of the year.

Мария Башкирцева. В поисках славы. Часть 2.
M. Bashkirtseva, “Julian's studio” (in the right corner in black – Maria)
IN 1908 year at the same academy studied Elena Kiseleva

We must pay tribute, Bashkirtseva worked extremely hard, achieving the set goal. Painting course, designed for seven years, she passed in two. Nonetheless, not without useful acquaintances, her candidacy was approved by the jury to participate in the famous Salon. Moreover, there is an episode in the diary, when being a debutante, and not meeting deadlines with the completion of work, the jury members went to meet her, giving the opportunity to finish the painting. Considering all the difficulty for a novice artist, just become a participant in an exhibition, it is obvious, that the presence of position and connections played a significant role in the formation of the name of Bashkirtseva. Yes, Mary noticed, as an artist, noted an article in a Russian newspaper, but for the ambitious and vain Mary, this was not enough.

М. Башкирцева и Ж. Бастьен-Лепаж
M. Bashkirtseva and Zh. Bastien-Lepage
Башкирцева М. Совещание (Сходка/Митинг). 1884
Bashkirtseva M. Meeting (Gathering / Meeting). 1884

A big upset for Bashkirtseva was the prevailing opinion in society about her painting “Rally” (or “Gathering”). There were spiteful critics, who suspected, that the then famous artist Jules Bastien-Lepage had a hand in this painting, friend and teacher of Mary. Here is what Maria writes about this in her diary.:

“Generally, I'm flattered by all this talk about my painting. I'm jealous, gossip about me, I am something of myself. Let me show myself a little, if i want it. But no, I tell you: isn't it awful, how can you not be upset? Six years, six best years of my life i work, like a convict; I don't see anyone, I don't use anything in my life! In six years I create a good thing, and dare to speak, what helped me! The reward for such labors turns into terrible slander!!! I say it, sitting on a bearskin, hands down, I speak sincerely and at the same time show off….”Recording of Bashkirtseva M. from 17 may 1884 of the year.

Жюль Бастьен-Лепаж
Jules Bastien-Lepage, “October. Picking potatoes”.

Yes, Maria is not mediocre, and, by and large, her talent for 25 years just began to appear, but he was no longer destined to develop: “… among the fog, enveloping me, I see reality even more clearly… reality is so cruel, so bitter, what, if I start writing about her, then I will pay. But I couldn't even write. And then, for what? What is all? Spend six years, working ten hours daily, to achieve what? The beginnings of talent and deadly disease”. IN 1884 year Maria Bashkirtseva died of consumption, which had eaten away her health for a long time.

Башкирцева М. на смертом одре
Bashkirtseva M. on the death stage

– And the main thing, may Maria never become an outstanding artist, but she still does not have literary ability. Undoubtedly, live longer, she would have developed into an interesting writer. And be Bashkirtseva our contemporary, she would certainly become a popular blogger: she is proud, vain, thirsts for publicity and owns the syllable, and a tendency to daring antics would only add interest to her person!

М. Башкирцева, "Весна. (Апрель)" 1884
M. Bashkirtseva, “Spring. (April)” 1884
М. Башкирцева, "Мальчики во дворе"
M. Bashkirtseva, Boys in the yard.
Башкирцева М., "Осень", 1884
Bashkirtseva M., Autumn, 1884
Башкирцева М., "Жан и Жак", 1883
Bashkirtseva M., Jean and Jacques, 1883
Мария Башкирцева. В поисках славы. Часть 2.

Maria Bashkirtseva. Looking for glory. Part 1.

Мария Башкирцева

At twenty-two I'll be famous or I'll die
Maria Bashkirtseva, entry from 13 april 1878 of the year

ABOUT, become a celebrity! When I imagine in my imagination, that I am famous, – this is definitely some kind of lightning, exactly electric current; I involuntarily jump up and start walking around the room.
Bashkirtseva M., entry from 8 November 1883 of the year

Surely each of us at least once heard the name of Maria Bashkirtseva. Mentions of her are most often associated with a voluminous diary in French, which she allegedly conducted with 12 years and until his death at the age of 24. On the other hand, Maria is known as a talented artist, a pupil of French masters, Salon participant. Also Bashkirtseva may be known to us by, that being a Russian noblewoman from Little Russia, dared to loudly declare herself to the whole of Europe.
М. Башкирцева, Отчаяние, 1882
M. Bashkirtseva, Despair, 1882
Maria Bashkirtseva in the usual perspective

What do we know about the young talented girl Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva? According to the diary entries, then it follows, that she was born 11 November 1860 years in the village of Gavrontsy near Poltava. Mother and father parted, when Maria was a child, and to improve the health of a sick daughter, the mother goes with her and other members of her family to Europe. There they travel a lot, this is where the growing up Maria begins to keep a diary, in which dreams of the glory of a singer or artist, and also dreams of successfully getting married, to shine in high society.

М. Башкирцева в народном наряде
M. Bashkirtseva in folk dress

However, at the age 16 years old, Mary has the first signs of consumption. She is taken to the best European doctors, she is treated by waters. Despite the bleak prospects, girl, Nevertheless, begins to intensively engage in painting in a private workshop Juliana. In a short time, Bashkirtseva achieves good results, she is found talented, she participates in exhibitions. Besides, Maria was noted in the activities of feminists, writes topical articles for their magazine “Citizen”, true, hiding under a false name. However, the disease progresses to 24 year old girl dies, leaving behind a number of paintings and correspondence with Maupassant.

Short life flash. History, in which the main character has defined a life purpose for herself, persistently advancing towards it, is about to cover her with success and recognition, but evil fate intervenes and does not allow Mademoiselle Bashkirtseva to show herself in full force. Such a heartwarming story will not leave anyone indifferent. That's right, the canvas of her life is true. However, a number of facts and episodes from the life of Mary, important for a reliable understanding of her personality, we will not find on the pages of the published Diary.
Мария Башкирцева
How it really was

The current Diary of Maria Bashkirtseva – this is the result of the work of the editors, hired by her mother. Text, really, belongs to a young talent, but it is greatly shortened. The names of the characters were removed from it., confused dates, it is often difficult to understand the context of what is happening at a particular period in the life of Mary and her family. Only statements left, indignation and other emotions of a young girl. Due to this interference, the diary seems to be somehow ethereal and devoid of volume..
Not hard to guess, that this editing was needed for, to hide the details of the life of the difficult Bashkirtsev-Babanin family, with their scandals and intrigues. In addition, on the pages of the diary, Maria touches on a number of public figures, who would hardly have liked her remarks.

For a long time, it never occurred to anyone, that Bashkirtseva's diary is not complete. Thousands of people read to them (including, among admirers of Maria M. Tsvetaeva, IN. Khlebnikov), not knowing, what's in front of them, in fact, fake. So what did Maria's relatives try to hide from the reader?, after all, personal records are exactly what the reader is interested in., what tell about the secret.

Башкирцева М.
Child of sin

– Myth-making in the diary begins literally from the very beginning of the story – from the date of birth of Bashkirtseva. Maria writes: “so, guess, that I am famous, and let's start. I was born 11 November 1860 of the year”. However, French explorer Collette Cognier once noticed, that this date does not coincide with that, what is in the original diary, stored in the National Library of France. The original designates: “I was born 12 November, but only had to be born 12 January, therefore my age should be counted from 12 January old style " (Unreleased entry from 12 January 1877 of the year). In a new style, Mary's birthday – 24 November, but officially, for all, she accepted congratulations 12 January old style. In other words, her mother got married being in position, what Maria herself learned only at a conscious age. She also learned about her father's bad illness., Konstantin Bashkirtsev, famous ladies' man.

Мария Башкирцева. В поисках славы. Часть 1.
Mary in the image.
Scandalous relatives of Mary

– After the parents divorced, Bashkirtseva, along with maternal relatives, leave for Europe. Moreover, this trip was sponsored by Faddey Romanov, husband of aunt Maria Nadine. Here is what A writes about this. Alexandrov in his book “The true story of Mademoiselle Bashkirtseva”:

” The fabulously rich old bachelor Thaddeus Romanov, appearing on the horizon, at first he whipped up the mother of Maria Bashkirtseva, it seems, he even had a short affair with her (they went to Krakow together), he also looked at ten-year-old Maria, but in the end the family, not without the help of Uncle Georges, turned him around and married ugly Nadine. Sometimes attacks of madness were found on him., possibly, delirium tremens, and a year after the wedding, he died suddenly, However, having left a will for all his huge fortune in favor of his young wife. Rumors immediately spread about the poisoning of Romanov, began to retell the story of his marriage: as if he was drunk and tricked into marrying his younger sister; Romanov family (his sister and other relatives) challenged the will through the court, claiming, that his signature on the will was forged. The process has begun, which lasted nearly ten years, and the echoes of which we find even in the printed text of the diary”.

Семья Марии Башкирцевой
UNSPECIFIED – CIRCA 1880: Marie Bashkirtseff (1860-1884), Russian painter and writer with his family. (Photo by Harlingue/Roger Viollet via Getty Images)

– In Europe, the large family of Maria Bashkirtseva was not easy with such a scandalous reputation, their entrance was closed to a decent society. On top of that, Maria Stepanovna's bart was of particular concern., Musi's mother, uncle Georges Babanin – rowdy and reveler, mot and babnik. He went to the police station more than once, but was not fixable. Another brother of Maria Stepanovna, Etienne, looking at all, was also a remarkable person:

” Georgy Babanin, uncle Georges, married at twenty
on thirty-six-year-old widow Dominica, already had a daughter, and ten years later she became, contrary to Russian laws, another brother's wife, Etienne (Stepan – ed.). Etienne started the process and achieved the annulment of George's marriage, although his marriage was concluded much later, as a result, the son of uncle Georges (we don't know his name), acutely worried, that he became an illegitimate child, committed suicide. Not surprising, that this family was accompanied by rumors and constant legal proceedings all their life, ostracism from the side of the world (even her father's sister did not receive the Bashkirtsevs in Nice, Mrs Tyutcheva), which caused a lot of unpleasant minutes for Maria Bashkirtseva herself”. AND. Александров “The true story of Mademoiselle Bashkirtseva”.

Beauty in doubt

– In her diary, Maria constantly describes her appearance., calling myself pretty, talks about his snow-white body, lovely legs and arms. Since. Maria, or Musya, as her family called her, originally intended to make her recordings public, then her narrative style is appropriate. She doesn't write so much for herself, how much for the reader (“viewer”), whose imagination can be played with. Judging by the photo, Maria's appearance is the most ordinary. Obviously, anticipating a similar reaction from some, the girl in one of the entries notes, that no photo can convey her beauty. And here is what the Russian artist A writes about her appearance. P. Bogolyubov:

” The first impression of the girl Bashkirtseva was as follows: I saw not beautiful, but a graceful blonde, sure, with a whipped bunch of hair on his forehead, smart eyes, pale, yellow and exhausted. The extremities of her mouth were raised, which gave the face the appearance of a young lady with unbridled will. From the Russian people who entered there, I heard, that the daughter is the idol of both ladies - mother and aunt, that their whole ambitious future is built on it, that's why it doesn't talk about money, and they are sprinkled with all those, who censes or writes about Mary”.

Мария Башкирцева с одной из своих собак
Maria Bashkirtseva with one of her dogs

But in the published diary about the eccentricities of close relatives, either it was mentioned fluently, or not mentioned at all.


Мария Башкирцева. В поисках славы. Часть 1.

Russian women artists 19-20 in. Part 1.

Famous Russian women artists 19 – start 20 centuries compared with men a little. Some of them are widely known, but they know about the majority, mostly, connoisseurs or simply lovers of painting.

1. Pollenova Elena
русские женщины-художницы
Elena Polenova, the first Russian illustrator of children's books

Polenova Elena Dmitrievna, sister of the Russian painter Polenov Vasily Dmitrievich, the author of the famous painting “Moscow courtyard”. The artist was born in November 1850 years in St. Petersburg. An unusually talented woman. The impetus for the development of her artistic skills was her arrival in Abramtsevo, to the estate of Savva Mamontov. Exactly at “Abramtsevo circle” surrounded by brilliant artists of that time, Elena Dmitrievna painted many landscapes. She also showed herself as a costume designer there., after all, known, Savva Ivanovich staged performances, for the preparation of which he involved all his wards.
Under the influence of Vasnetsov, Polenov is fond of everything, what is connected with the Russian people. Collects antiquities, fixes vintage ornaments on a sheet of paper, which will then be skillfully used in woodcarving. Furniture designed by Elena Dmitrievna was in great demand.

And perhaps, Polenova's greatest contribution to the development of Russian art was her attention to, what Russian children read, what books are they brought up on. It was Elena Polenova who first took up the illustration of Russian folk tales. Before that, children read well-illustrated foreign fairy tales..

2. Bashkirtseva Maria
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.

Bashkirtseva Maria Konstantinovna born in 1858 year in Poltava province, then part of the Russian Empire. The girl lived most of her short life with her mother and relatives in France.. Maria left her mark not only in painting, but also in literature – famous “Diary” brought Bashkirtseva special popularity.

Башкирцева М. В студии. Мастерская Жюлиана, 1881
Bashkirtseva M. In a studio. Julian's workshop, 1881
3. Kruglikova Elizaveta
Нестеров М. Портрет Кругликовой Е. С., 1938 г.
Nesterov M. Portrait of Kruglikova E. FROM., 1938 g.

Kruglikova Elizaveta Sergeevna was born in 1865 year in St. Petersburg. After studying as a volunteer at the Moscow School of Painting, sculpture and architecture, Elizaveta Sergeevna went to Paris, where she attended a private academy of arts. Kruglikova received the greatest popularity as an etcher and master of the silhouette.

 Елизавета Кругликова. Автопортрет, 1910.
Elizaveta Kruglikova. Self-portrait, 1910.
4. Junker-Kramskaya Sofia
Крамской И. Н. Портрет дочери.
Kramskoy I. N. Daughter's portrait.

Yunker-Kramskaya Sofya Ivanovna was born in 1867 year in the family of a Wanderer artist AND. N. Kramsky. Sofya Ivanovna has established herself as an excellent portrait painter, however, the years of the revolution did not spare her. The authorities questioned Kramskoy's trustworthiness and the artist was sent into exile in Siberia. Many works by Kramskoy have been lost by now for various reasons. .

Спящая, 1880-1890 гг.
Sleeping, 1880-1890 gg.
5. Yakunchikova-Weber Maria
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.
Yakunchikova-Weber M. IN.

Maria Vasilievna Yakunchikova was born in 1870 year in a Moscow merchant family. She was a relative by her mother FROM. AND. Mamontova. Surrounded by an atmosphere of creativity since childhood, Maria Vasilievna also could not help but get carried away with painting. However, in 1888 year the artist was diagnosed with tuberculosis, in 1902 she passed away, leaving behind a number of outstanding works of art.

Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.
Avenue in the Bois de Boulogne”, oil on board
Страх. 1893-1895
Fear. 1893-1895
Русские женщины-художницы 19-20 в. Часть 1.