Chernyshevsky Nikolai Gavrilovich (1828-1889), Saratov

Чернышевский Н. Г.
Chernyshevsky N. D.
1. What is Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky famous for??

In domestic and world history, Chernyshevsky is known as the author of the novel “What to do?”. However, in addition to his literary contribution, he also found his vocation, and, possibly, first of all, in philosophy, literary criticism and journalism.
Chernyshevsky in the middle 19 in. – ideological inspirer of the revolutionary minds of Russia. Moreover, Nikolai Gavrilovich was one of the first in Russia, who insisted on a speedy decision “women's issue”. He actively pushed for women's freedoms alongside men.. In other words, Chernyshevsky – ideologue of domestic feminism.

2. Place and year of birth. Origin

Nikolay Chernyshevsky is born 24 July 1828 years in Saratov.
His father, Gabriel Ivanovich, came from serfs, but at the time of the birth of his son Nicholas he was already an archpriest of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the city of Saratov. Interesting, that the surname Chernyshevsky was given to the family of Gabriel Ivanovich by the name of the village of Chernyshev in the Chembarsky district (Penza), where he once lived as a serf.

2. Education
Чернышевский Николай

At first, his father was engaged in the education of Nikolai Gavrilovich. Aged 14 years old he was entrusted to a French governor, which the (have an opinion) had a significant impact on the youth's worldview.
As a child, Chernyshevsky differed from the rest of the children in that, what, as the saying goes, literally devoured books, falling into his hands (while having strong myopia), for which he received the original nickname – “Bibliophage”.

IN 1843 year Chernyshevsky entered the Saratov Theological Seminary. After studying there for three years, he entered the St. Petersburg University, choosing the Historical and Philological Department of the Faculty of Philosophy.
IN 1850 year Chernyshevsky received the degree of candidate (the last academic degree in authority after doctor and master) and departed for Saratov, where he was accepted as a teacher at a local gymnasium. At that time, already a revolutionary-minded young man and having his own audience on duty., Chernyshevsky then did not fail to take the opportunity to share with his wards radical ideas for that time..

3. Formation of a worldview

During his studies at the university, Chernyshevsky became interested in reading the works of ancient philosophers and thinkers of French and English materialism of the 17th-18th centuries., works of Hegel, Newton, Laplace, Feuerbach, which had a great influence on the formation of his political views.
Among domestic intellectuals, Chernyshevsky was close in spirit to Belinsky V. G., Herzen A. and Vvedensky I. AND. Reading serious books did not pass without a trace for him., soon Nikolai Gavrilovich took up the pen himself.

4. “Contemporary”. Journalism
Чернышевский Николай Григорьевич

For the first time, Chernyshevsky declared himself in small articles in "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" in 1853 year. A year later, he began to collaborate with a socio-political magazine “Contemporary”, and here he also acted as the head of the publication along with N.N. Nekrasov., and later Dobrolyubov N.

IN 1855 year 10 May, the defense of Chernyshevsky's dissertation "Aesthetic relations of art to reality". This event has become a landmark. The audience heeded his harsh criticism of the idealist aesthetics. However, the innovative approach to the topic was not appreciated by everyone.: Nikolai Gavrilovich did not receive his scientific degree right away, but only three years after his loud performance.

IN 1860 year Chernyshevsky writes a work “Anthropological principle in philosophy”, after the promulgation of which he was honored to become a leader in the camp of Russian materialist philosophy 19 in.

Beginning with 1858 of the year “Contemporary” under the leadership of Chernyshevsky took a course towards the revolutionary-democratic direction of social thought in Russia, what subsequently caused the conflict in the editorial office – the liberal part of it, the radical deviation was not to the liking. In May 1862 of the year “from above” it was ordered to stop work on the publishing of the magazine for a period of eight months, and already 7 July, his main ideological inspirer Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky was arrested.

5. Arrest. “What to do?”. Link
Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов

Chernyshevsky was accused of compiling and attempting to distribute a leaflet "Bows to the peasants of the lords from their well-wishers", the purpose of which was to instill revolutionary sentiments in society. Beginning with 1858 Nikolay Gavrilovich demonstrated an active stance on the agrarian reform being prepared by the government, being her opponent. Peasant reform, according to Chernyshevsky, did not at all meet the interests of the common people, but at the same time, its adoption would simply muffle the already incipient revolutionary sentiments in society.

FROM 1861 year Chernyshevsky is the main ideological guideline for the participants of the revolutionary circle “Land and Freedom”, at the same time, he himself was not directly related to this secret society and was not part of it. From the same year, secret surveillance was established for Chernyshevsky., as behind the "enemy of the Russian Empire number one".

After the arrest, Chernyshevsky was placed in solitary confinement at the Peter and Paul Fortress. For a year and a half there was an investigation into the Chernyshevsky case. All this time Nikolai Gavrilovich defended his innocence, once even went on a hunger strike, lasting nine days.
Meanwhile, Chernyshevsky, in new conditions for himself, continued to conduct intellectual work, leaving notes on sheets, of which there were subsequently about two hundred. Well, and a significant moment of this difficult period is the writing of a novel by Chernyshevsky “What to do?”, who saw the light in 1863 year, being printed in a magazine “Contemporary”.

At this time, Chernyshevsky was very popular in a progressive society.. His romance “What to do?”, it seemed, gave people, those wishing to change the existing order, guide to action. Details on the meaning and influence can be found in the memoirs E. N. Vodovozovoy.

In February 1864 year Chernyshevsky was announced the verdict, according to which he was sentenced to 14 years of hard labor followed by a life-long settlement in Siberia. In May of the same year on Mytninskaya Square (St. Petersburg) a civil execution was carried out over the revolutionary, meaning the deprivation of the convict of all rights of the state.
In early July, Chernyshevsky arrived in Irkutsk, where he was assigned for work at the Usolsk salt plant. He did not stay here long. Having changed several points of serving the sentence, in 1867 year Chernyshevsky was taken to the Akatuy prison.

During the period of hard labor, Chernyshevsky wrote two novels: “Old man” and “Prologue”. Both manuscripts were delivered from the place of detention to Chernyshevsky's confidant in St. Petersburg, but were not printed. Works of the disgraced writer and philosopher “went” among his supporters, however, they officially appeared in print in 1905 year.

6. Personal life
Ольга и Николай Чернышевские
Olga and Nikolay Chernyshevsky

Nikolai Gavrilovich was married to Olga Sokratovna Vasilyeva, whom I met in 1853 year when he was a teacher at the Saratov gymnasium. In marriage, they had three sons. To outsiders, the relationship between the spouses seemed very strange. Olga Sokratovna was a charming lady, gypsy blood, easily and willingly captivated men. By the way, could not resist her spell and Dobrolyubov. However, Nikolai Grigorievich believed, that a woman is free to decide what to do and with whom to be, despite the fact that he loved his wife passionately.

7. When Chernyshevsky died

IN 1871 year ended the term awarded to Chernyshevsky hard labor, after which he was escorted to Vilyuisk. He was allowed to return to the European part of Russia only in 1883 year. IN 1889 year, after five years of living in Astrakhan, Chernyshevsky obtained permission to settle in Saratov, where he arrived in June of the same year. However, he did not have a chance to live at home for long.. 11 october 1889 of the year Nikolai Gavrilovich fell ill with malaria and died a few days later.

Чернышевский Николай Гаврилович (1828-1889), Саратов

Sukhodolsky Petr Alexandrovich: in 39 life is just beginning

Суходольский Петр., художник XIX в.

Sukhodolsky Petr Alexandrovich was born 1 may 1835 years in a noble family. His father was a retired lieutenant Alexander Ampleevich Sukhodolsky. He built a manor in the village of Vladimirskoe (now Petroselie) Kaluga province, where the future artist grew up.

The picturesque places of Kaluga really pushed young Peter Alexandrovich, already keen on painting, develop creativity. However, when it's time to decide on future activities, he went to Petersburg and entered the university at the Faculty of History and Philology.

In parallel with the search for your place in life, a young man is going through a personal drama. Father, having learned, that Pyotr Alexandrovich is in love with the chef's daughter Lyuba Ostretsova, sells the entire Ostretsov family to a certain landowner in the Tver province, and deprives his son of material assistance. Being in disgrace, Sukhodolsky drops out of school and moves to Kaluga, where he works as an assistant proofreader of the Synodal Printing House.

Only after a while, after father's death, when Peter Alexandrovich was already 39 years old, he, selling part of the inherited land, managed to redeem his beloved (by that time she was 33 of the year). IN 1874 year they got married, their family had eight children.

Moreover, at the age of 39, Pyotr Alexandrovich decides to enter the Academy of Arts. For this, he returns to Petersburg and, passing the exam, begins to study hard, as if trying to make up for lost years.
Job “View of the village of Zhelny, Kaluga region” became his graduation work, thanks to her, he received the title of class artist of the first degree. Later this painting will enter 100 best works, which were selected for the World Exhibition in Vienna.

картина Суходольского Полдень в деревне Желны Калужскогй губернии
Noon in the village. The village of Zhelny, Kaluga province, Mosalsky district. 1864

Sukhodolsky preferred landscape to all other genres of painting.. In this he achieved the highest skill, and they say, that he was one of the favorite painters of Alexander III.

Суходольский, Ночной пейзаж
Night landscape

As an academic artist, Sukhodolsky was entitled to a pensioner trip to Europe. However, he refused to go there, preferring to paint Russian nature and countryside. The artist argues this is so: “My stay in Russia attracted me so much into the study of our northern nature and many of the wonderful colors in particular, what i have come to a conclusion, that the Russian landscape and figures are no less interesting and can make a greater impression on me of Italian, not to mention german. The subject of my studies consisted and consists of sketches from nature”.

Вечер под Ивана Купалу.1887 год, Суходольский
Evening under Ivan Kupala. 1887
Суходольский "В Дубках,близ Москвы"
In Dubki,near Moscow. 1862
Суходольский Косари.Вечерний отдых.1887 год
Mowers. Evening Rest. 1887
Суходольский "Украинская деревня"
Sukhodolsky P., Ukrainian village
Суходольский "Троицын день."1884 год
Trinity Day. 1884
Суходольский "Весенний пейзаж с закатом солнца"
Spring landscape with sunset

For a long time Sukhodolsky did not keep in touch with the Academy of Arts, farming on the estate. He was not rich, and in order to feed his large family he even had to get a job in government service. But the artist did not give up painting.
During this time, he had to survive a fire twice.. After the last disaster, unable to recover, Sukhodolsky moves to St. Petersburg. Native Academy provided him with a workshop, where he painted pictures all day long. Among the admirers of his talent was also patron P. M. Tretyakov.

Суходольский П. А."Весенний разлив Оки"
Spring flood of the Oka

Peter Alexandrovich died in 1903 year in need and debt, the grave has not survived.
The paintings of this wonderful artist are now kept in the largest museums in Russia, including the Russian Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. A large number of works are in private collections.

Суходольский "Берег моря"
Sea shore
Суходольский "По пути домой"
On the way home

Vera Zhelikhovskaya (1835-1896), Odessa – St. Petersburg

Вера Желиховская, писательница, мистик и фанатаст

Vera Zhelikhovskaya (урожд. Gun) – 19th century writer, became popular thanks to works of an autobiographical and mystical nature. Besides, being a sister of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and a cousin of Witte S. YU., the name of Vera Petrovna is unlikely to get lost in the rich Russian history.

Вера Желиховская (1835-1896), Одесса - Санкт-Петербург

Vera Petrovna was born 29 april (Art. style – 17) 1835 years in Odessa. Her mother, Elena Andreevna Gan (Fadeeva) died at the age 28 years old, after which the care of Vera, her older sister Elena and younger brother Leonid, grandfather took over, AND. M. Fadeev, Saratov governor. The second daughter of Andrei Mikhailovich became the wife of Yuli Fedorovich Witte, mother of statesman C. YU. Witte.

IN 1847 year Vera with the rest of the children was transported to Tiflis, impressions of life in which were later reflected in her work.

Vera Petrovna's father, Pyotr Alekseevich Gan was the son of a major-general lieutenant of a horse-artillery company. IN 1845 year Pyotr Alekseevich retired "a colonel with a uniform and full pension", until February 1848 of the year was the manager of the state stable in Kamenets-Podolsk. Became a widower, he married again, but soon lost his spouse again. Daughter Elizabeth remained in care.

Pyotr Alekseevich did not see children from his first marriage about 9 years old, and after a series of family troubles, he began to write to Vera Petrovna, which at that time was 16 years old, with a request to come to him. Vera Petrovna fulfilled the request, and, having arrived, took care of my stepsister, and also about the father's house.

IN 1854 Vera Petrovna married Lieutenant Nikolai Nikolaevich Yakhontov, who was brother A. Yakhontov, known to us as a poet. Two children were born in marriage. However, Nikolay Nikolaevich, having a cold, the second child was barely born, died.

IN 27 years old (1862 year) Vera Petrovna married again. This time the director of the Tiflis gymnasium Vladimir Ivanovich Zhelikhovsky became the chosen one. During the first six years of their life together, they had four children.. It was for them that Vera Petrovna began to compose her first fairy tales.

IN 1878 year, the first publications of Zhelikhovskaya appeared in the capital magazine “Family and school”.

IN 1880 husband of Vera Petrovna died, after which she moves with the children to Odessa. There, the writer begins to work hard on her new works.. And since all the eminent publishing houses were located mainly in the capital, Vera Petrovna rushes there.

Fantastic story “Mayan”, collection “Fantastic stories”, along with works of an autobiographical nature ("How I Was Little" and "My boyhood") repeatedly reprinted and translated into other languages. Northern shamans, magicians, secret knowledge, exclusivity and exclusivity – the main motives of many works of Zhelikhovskaya.

Like sister E. P. Blavatsky, Vera Petrovna was carried away by phenomena not investigated by science, the book "Unexplained or Unexplained" confirms this. Wrote much about Theosophy.

Желиховская и Блаватская
IN. P. Желиховская и Е. P. Blavatsky

Nadezhda Vladimirovna Zhelikhovskaya, daughter of Vera Petrovna, later became a wife Alexey Alekseevich Brusilov, whose name is named the breakthrough of the Russian troops in 1916 year.

Н.В. Брусилова
daughter B. P. Zhelikhovskaya – Nadezhda Vladimirovna Brusilova

Vera Petrovna lived 61 year. Buried in Odessa.
To date, Zhelikhovskaya's books are not being republished., but they are easy to find on the Internet.

One of the interesting facts about the biography of Vera Petrovna Zhelikhovskaya is that, that her mother, Elena Andreevna Gan, came from the princely family of the Dolgorukovs.